Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. RESULTS: Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears - aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.
Five species of hoverflies of the subfamily Eristalinae (tribes Milesiini and Rhingiini): Criorhina floccosa (Meigen, 1822), Chalcosyrphus eunotus (Loew, 1873), Pocota personata (Harris, 1780), Cheilosia psilophthalma Becker, 1894 and C. reniformis Hellén, 1930, are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Distribution of these species is discussed and diagnoses of Cheilosia species are provided.
Seven hoverfly species of the tribes Brachyopini and Merodontini (subfamily Eristalinae): Brachyopa maculipennis Thompson, 1980, B. plena Collin, 1939, B. vittata (Zetterstedt, 1843), Myolepta obscura Becher, 1882, Orthonevra geniculata (Meigen, 1830), Merodon moenium (Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822) and Psilota atra (Fallén, 1817) are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Distributions of these species are summarized and diagnoses of the species are provided.
Five species of hoverflies of the subfamilies Pipizinae and Syrphinae: Pipiza accola Violovitsh, 1985, Platycheirus nielseni Vockeroth, 1990, P. occultus Goeldlin, Maibach and Speight, 1990, Epistrophe olgae Mutin, 1990, and Xanthogramma laetum (Fabricius, 1794) are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Distributions of these species are summarized and diagnoses of the species are provided.
Pinus sibirica and P. pumila are Asian five-needle pines with vast geographic distributions that are partially overlapping. Natural hybrids with intermediate morphology have been found previously, but there is a lack of evidence of ongoing introgression. The goal of our study was to elucidate the genetic structure of P. sibirica and P. pumila populations growing in the north-east of their sympatry zone (Aldan plateau) using cytoplasmic DNA markers. All studied P. sibirica and P. pumila trees had usual species-specific growth habits. Using nad1 intron2 of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and trnV of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) we found that trees morphologically identified as P. sibirica had pumila-specific mtDNA. Moreover, some of them also had pumila-specific cpDNA. P. pumila trees were typical and had pumila-type cytoplasmic DNA markers. These results suggest that interspecific hybridization took place long ago and lead to introgression and cryptic hybrids with P. sibirica appearance and P. pumila mtDNA