In the paper, results of the study on kinetics of aluminum evaporation from a liquid Ti-6Al-4V alloy during its smelting in a vacuum induction furnace are presented. The experiments were performed with the use of a VIM 20-50 furnace (manufactured by SECO-WARWICK) at 1973 K and 5-1000 Pa. Based on the values of changes in aluminum concentration in a liquid alloy, overall mass transfer coefficients were estimated. Within the analysed pressure range, the coefficient values changed from 0.97·10-5 ms-1 to 1.93·10-5 ms-1 for 1000 Pa and 5 Pa, respectively
In the paper, results of a kinetic analysis of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are presented. The analysis was performed based on the findings obtained during the alloy smelting in the vacuum induction furnace at 5 Pa to 1000 Pa and at 1973 K, 1998 K and 2023 K.
P. Folęga and G. Siwiec
Numerical Analysis of Selected Materials for Flexsplines
The computer analysis of the influence of flexspline materials at the strength of the flexspline was performed for two and three dimensional models using the finite element method and MSC Patran/Nastran software. Calculations were conducted in two steps. The first one concerns two dimensional models on the contact between the flexspline and the wave generator. The second concerns three dimensional models of flexspline. The application of steel and steel-composite materials as material of the flexspline in harmonic drive was analysed. In calculations were used two types of composites with an epoxy resin, reinforced by the carbon-fiber or the glass-fiber. The preliminary study of stresses for the developed models was made. The steel-composite hybrid flexspline as compared to conventional steel flexspline showed a decrease of maximum stress in the analyzed dangerous cross-sections. Shapes and the frequency of vibration of the flexsplines were also calculated. The impact of stacking fiber angle on the frequency of vibration in the tested flexsplines is negligible.
A. Szkliniarz, W. Szkliniarz, L. Blacha and G. Siwiec
In the paper, results of investigations regarding temperature and strain rate effects on hot-deformed Cu-3Ti alloy microstructure are presented. Evaluation of the alloy microstructure was performed with the use of a Gleeble HDS-V40 thermal-mechanical simulator on samples subjected to uniaxial hot compression within 700 to 900ºC and at the strain rate of 0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 s-1 until 70% (1.2) strain. It was found that within the analyzed temperature and strain rate ranges, the alloy deformation led to partial or complete recrystallization of its structure and to multiple refinement of the initial grains. The recrystallization level and the average diameter of recrystallized grains increase with growing temperature and strain rate. It was shown that entirely recrystallized, fine-grained alloy structure could be obtained following deformation at the strain rate of min 10.0 s-1 and the temperature of 800°C or higher.
G. Siwiec, P. Buliński, M. Palacz, J. Smołka and L. Blacha
The paper presents analysis and assessment of operating power of vacuum induction furnace in relation to the efficiency of lead removal from Cu-Pb alloy in VIM (vacuum induction melting) technology. Thermodynamic analysis of the process is performed as well.
G. Siwiec, B. Oleksiak, A. Smalcerz and J. Wieczorek
In the paper, results of surface tension measurements with regard to liquid copper-silver alloys with the maximum silver content of 40 % mass Ag are presented. The measurements were performed at 1373-1573 K with the use of the sessile drop method. In the study, a high-temperature microscope, coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with the software designed for experiment recording and picture analysing, was applied. In order to determine surface tension values, the least square estimation of the parameters of the system of differential equations, describing the shape of a liquid sessile drop, was used.
A. Smalcerz, B. Oleksiak and G. Siwiec
A big interest in application of cold crucible furnace (CCF) for industrial, particularly metallurgical, processes has been observed in recent years. They are mainly utilised for melting of metal, glass and other materials. Analyses of processes that occur in such devices are performed; however, computer modelling is rarely applied. As a precise determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is essential for a proper analysis of processes in furnaces with cold crucibles, a complex 3D model development is necessary. In the paper, effects of a crucible design and current frequency on the efficiency of the induction furnace with cold crucible are presented. Numerical calculations were performed with the use of the Flux 3D professional software.
A. Lisiecki, R. Burdzik, G. Siwiec, Ł. Konieczny, J. Warczek, P. Folęga and B. Oleksiak
Autogenous laser welding of 0.8 mm thick butt joints of car body electro-galvanized steel sheet DC04 was investigated. The Yb:YAG disk laser TruDisk 3302 with the beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used. The effect of laser welding parameters and technological conditions on weld shape, penetration depth, process stability, microstructure and mechanical performance was determined. It was found that the laser beam spot focused on the top surface of a butt joint tends to pass through the gap, especially in the low range of heat input and high welding speed. All test welds were welded at a keyhole mode, and the weld metal was free of porosity. Thus, the keyhole laser welding of zinc coated steel sheets in butt configuration provides excellent conditions to escape for zinc vapours, with no risk of porosity. Microstructure, microhardness and mechanical performance of the butt joints depend on laser welding conditions thus cooling rate and cooling times. The shortest cooling time t8/5 was calculated for 0.29 s.
R. Burdzik, A. Lisiecki, J. Warczek, Ł. Konieczny, P. Folęga, A. Szkliniarz and G. Siwiec
The article addresses a method proposed for comprehensive research of vibration properties dedicated to new structural materials. The method in question comprises three-stage studies, thus enabling the related costs to be reduced on each stage of the process. Subjects of identification and assessment are both the properties and the material structure as well as numerically determined dynamic characteristics and actual vibration characteristics of materials. The article provides preliminary research results obtained for Cu-2Ti-1Co and Cu-6Ti-1Co alloys, the mechanical properties of which are very prospective. An additional advantage of the method proposed is the capability of identifying alloy types by application of non-destructive vibratory methods.
P. Buliński, J. Smołka, S. Golak, R. Przyłucki, L. Blacha, R. Białecki, M. Palacz and G. Siwiec
In this paper, the velocity field and turbulence effects that occur inside a crucible of a typical induction furnace were investigated. In the first part of this work, a free surface shape of the liquid metal was measured in a ceramic crucible. Then a numerical model of aluminium melting process was developed. It took into account coupling of electromagnetic and thermofluid fields that was performed using commercial codes. In the next step, the sensitivity analysis of turbulence modelling in the liquid domain was performed. The obtained numerical results were compared with the measurement data. The performed analysis can be treated as a preliminary approach for more complex mathematical modelling for the melting process optimisation in crucible induction furnaces of different types.