G. O. Kolawole, J. U. Umoh, S. N. Kia and A. Dzikwi
Canine rabies is enzootic in Nigeria occurring in all parts of the country. Rabies has been reported in Niger state neighbouring the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and the movement of rabid dogs between the neighbour states is possible. Hence, a study to determine the immune status of dogs in Abuja to rabies was necessary. A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the rabies antibody titre of owned dogs and the rabies knowledge, attitude and practices of the dog owners. Serum samples from 276 dogs were collected and a structured questionnaire administered to each dog owner using a personal interview method. Associations between the demographic variables, protection titres and knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) were assessed using χ2 analysis. Sera samples were analysed to measure for rabies antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Out of the 276 dogs sampled, 229 (83 %) had a certified antirabies vaccination record. All vaccinated dogs had antibody titre against rabies greater than 0.6 EU.ml–1. The dog owners had a mean knowledge score of 63.54 ± 23.82 %, mean attitude score of 81.45 ± 20.37 % and the mean practice score was 91.3 ± 21.39 %. There was a significant association between the vaccination status of the dogs and categorized knowledge score (P < 0.05), attitude score (P < 0.05) and practice score (P < 0.05). A large proportion of the dogs (47.4 %) owned by residents of satellite towns were not vaccinated against rabies. Hence mass vaccination of dogs in these suburban settlements is strongly recommended
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) disease has occurred in many countries globally adversely affecting domestic poultry production. Ghana recorded her first outbreak of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 2007 on a small scale commercial farm in Tema. Since then, there have been numerous outbreaks. The source of these outbreaks is not conclusive. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian influenza outbreaks in Ghana is not known. This study sought to investigate the role of wild birds in the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1) in Ghana, particularly in Southern Ghana. Wild birds were trapped and sampled through mist netting. The faecal and tracheal samples were analysed using a One-Step Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primer sets targeting the matrix protein gene of the Avian influenza virus. Sera samples were subjected to multispecies competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for anti-AI virus antibodies. Three hundred and twenty two (322) wild birds were trapped and sampled. Birds sampled included 87.3 % (281/322) resident birds and 12.7 % (41/322) migratory birds. The migratory birds included intra-African migrants 12.2 % (5/41) and Pale-arctic migrants 87.8 % (36/41). Avian influenza virus and antibody were neither detected in these swabs nor sera samples, respectively. The study documented the absence of AI in resident and migrant wild birds in the study area and suggest that wild birds may not be responsible for the outbreaks of AI in the poultry. However, sustained surveillance is recommended to ascertain a nationwide successful prevention and control strategy to stay the tide of any future intruding AI outbreaks.
G. R. Okoh, H. M. Kazeem, G. S. N. Kia and S. Mailafia
Rabies urgently requires strengthening of new and existing diagnostic methodology in order to overcome the threat it poses. We evaluated the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test (RIDT) in detecting rabies viral antigens, comparing both tests with the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT) which is the gold standard in rabies diagnosis. Fifty dog brain tissues collected from the archives of the Central Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria, were utilized for this study. ELISA performed better than RIDT and recorded equivalent result with DFAT as compared with RIDT. There was a 96 % agreement between ELISA and DFAT for rabies antigen detection (concordance coefficient 78 % : 95 % C. I. 0.6366 to 0.8654) while there was a 54 % agreement between RIDT and DFAT (concordance coefficient 17 % : 95 % C. I. 0.05138—0.2752). Compared to DFAT, the sensitivities of ELISA and RIDT were 95.5 % and 47.6 %, respectively, and the specificities of ELISA and RIDT were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The simple Cohen’s kappa coefficient for ELISA related to the DFAT was found to be 0.834 (95 % C. I. 0.613—1.0). For RIDT, the Kappa value was 0.170 (95 % C. I. 0.003—0.337). The ELISA is as reliable a diagnostic method as the DFAT which is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. It has an advantage of being able to analyse large number of samples at the same time, making it more suitable for epidemiological studies and for laboratories that cannot perform the DFAT. The unsatisfactory result of RIDT in this study reiterates the need to perform an adequate test validation before it can be used in the laboratory for rabies diagnosis.
T. A. Delia, A. A. Dzikwi-Emennaa, J. K. P. Kwaga, G. S. N. Kia, O. T. Olufemi, G. R. Otolorin and A. W. Adanu
Porcine rotaviruses are potential reservoirs for genetic exchange with human rotaviruses. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of porcine Rotavirus antigen and associated risk factors in pig-raising communities and institutional piggeries in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 376 faecal samples from pigs of all ages were collected from backyard and institutional piggeries by convenience sampling. The faecal samples collected were analysed using commercially available ELISA kit: BioK 343/2, for the antigenic diagnosis of rotavirus in porcine faeces. The overall prevalence of rotavirus antigen in pigs was 9.8 % (37/376). Piglets (10.4 %) had a higher prevalence than adults (9.1 %), while males (10.1 %) were more infected than females (9.6 %). Breed-specific prevalences revealed 5.9 %, 12 % and 15.5 % for local, exotic and cross-breeds, respectively. There was a significant association between breed (P < 0.05) (Odds Ratio OR = 2.927; 95 % Confidence Interval CI on OR = 1.288—6.653) and rotavirus infection. Management system revealed 14 % and 8.2 % prevalence for intensive and semi-intensive systems, respectively. There is evidence of Rotavirus infection (9.8 %) in pigs in Zaria, and the breed is a risk factor. This study provides the first data on the prevalence of rotavirus and risk factors of rotavirus infection among pigs in Zaria and environs, Kaduna state, Nigeria. There is a need to enlighten the public on the zoonotic implication and economic impacts of rotavirus infections.