Endoparasites have the potential to cause significant health problems in humans and other animals. Consequently, particularly the endoparasites of a zoonotic nature are of great interest to health authorities and scientists. This study investigated the prevalence of different intestinal parasite species of carnivores kept in captivity. Altogether 36 pooled samples of faeces obtained from individual animal enclosures from the Neunkircher Zoo and Wolfspark Werner Freund in Germany were examined. The samples were analysed by means of a flotation concentration method with the use of Faust and Kozák-Mágrová solution. Out of a total of 36 samples, 19 were positive for endoparasites (52.78 %). Furthermore, 13 out of 19 positive samples were protozoans (68.42 %).
Giardiasis is one of the most frequent causes of diarrhoeic diseases in the world. Giardia cysts are most commonly transferred via ingestion of contaminated water or food. On the basis of genetic characteristics Giardia duodenalis is classified in eight assemblages A—H. Zoonotic assemblages A and B are increasingly found in isolates from dogs which may constitute the reservoir of human giardiasis. This article presents a brief review of G. duodenalis assemblages detected in dogs that were documented in European countries.
Spirocerca lupi is a nematode causing spirocercosis disease that affects mostly carnivores and especially canidae. The life cycle of S. lupi includes a coprophagous beetle as an obligatory intermediate host and a variety of facultative paratenic hosts. In Israel, spirocercosis is considered to be a serious condition with a variety of clinical signs comprising a great risk to canine populations. The diagnosis at an early infective stage is unreliable and the vast majority of infected dogs are diagnosed only when the disease has advanced. In advanced stages of the disease, treatment is difficult and there is a high risk for complications. A study was carried out to compare the prevalence of S. lupi in the central region of Israel with a previous investigation and by that consequently try to estimate the efficacy of preventative treatment used nowadays in Israel. The study was done by the use of two different methods: looking for the infective larvae (L3) in the main intermediate host in Israel, Ontophagus sellatus, and searching for the eggs of S. lupi by performing flotation methods on faecal samples. Beetles and faecal samples were collected from four different locations in the winter and summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019. According to the literature review and collection of data from case studies, the prevalence of spirocercosis is increasing in Israel, despite the negative results from the dissections of beetles and faecal samples.
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are protozoan infections of the digestive tract and one of the most frequent causes of enteritis in dogs and cats, associated with acute and chronic diarrhoea. Generally, the risk of infection is higher for younger individuals in which the overall clinical picture and the course of disease are more serious. In this study we investigated the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in dogs in Košice district of eastern Slovakia. From September 2015 until November 2016, we examined samples of faeces from 100 dogs from two shelters. Giardia duodenalis was diagnosed by the flotation method according to Faust, and by the molecular biologic method (Nested PCR). For the diagnosis of cryptosporidium oocysts, we used a staining method according to Kinyoun, and for detection of the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. a sandwich ELISA method. The total prevalence of these protozoan infections were 22 % (22/100), and of that, 19 % of the samples (19/100) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 3 % (3/100) for the Cryptosporidium spp. In the shelter in Haniska, the giardia cysts were present in 9/54 samples (16.6 %) and cryptosporidia oocysts in 1/54 (1.85 %) samples of the faeces. In the Malá Farma shelter, 10/46 (21.73 %) samples were positive for G. duodenalis and 2/46 (4.34 %) showed positivity for Cryptosporidium spp.
During the years 2015—2016 we obtained 15 samples of faeces of brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 2 samples of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of young female brown bears for helminthological examinations. The samples of faeces were collected from various sites in the protected landscape area CHKO-Poľana, and the gastrointestinal tracts originated from bears hunted down in the same area within permitted regulation of bear population for 2015. Of the 17 samples collected from the CHKO-Poľana area, 13 were positive for the presence of parasites (76.47 %). Parasitological examinations revealed the presence of 5 species of endoparasites: Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, Baylisascaris and Ancylostoma. Roundworms Baylisascaris transfuga (46.15 %) and Ancylostoma spp. (30.77 %) were the dominant species. Observation of the seasonal dynamics showed the highest prevalence of parasites during autumn and winter.
The aim of the study was monitoring of liver flukes in wild ruminants including red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in selected regions of Slovak Republic. Between 2014 – 2016 we examined 782 faecal samples from selected wild ruminants using coprological techniques and serological methods (ELISA detection of F. hepatica coproantigens). None of the samples was positive for the presence of Fasciola hepatica, 5.89 % of faecal samples were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Higher prevalence was recorded in mouflon (30.83 %), lower in red deer (1.49 %). D. dendriticum infection was not determined in fallow deer and roe deer. The seasonal distribution of dicrocoeliosis indicated a highest prevalence in autumn. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in fenced rearing when compared with open hunting grounds, suggesting that animal agglomeration, constant use of the same areas and possible stress are the main risk factors. Parasitological examination of livers of hunted wild ruminants revealed dicrocoeliosis in mouflon.