After the political transformations in East-Central Europe local authorities were forced to realise that they have to employ more active policy, and consequently, the use of place marketing became more popular. The study examines one particular city in Hungary, Debrecen, and concentrates on two areas. First, it presents what methods were employed in an attempt to attract economic players and tourists, and to increase the satisfaction of existing target groups. Secondly, it evaluates the steps taken: how characteristic were the tools used in Debrecen in other Hungarian cities, and what positive and negative features of marketing activity can be identified.
Introduction. The objective of this paper is to investigate the position of tourism in the committee structure of the local councils of Hungarian local governments. Material and methods. The data were sourced from websites of the settlements concerned and all the results obtained statistically evaluated using the method of descriptive statistics. Results. From the data available, we can clearly determine the role of tourism in the committees of local governments, as well as the direction of changes after the 2010 election. The results also clearly identified the factors that determine the role of tourism in local council committees and the sectors that constitute the same committees with tourism. Conclusions. The role of tourism in committees of local councils is fundamentally unfavourable and the situation deteriorated after the 2010 election. The role of tourism in committees of local councils is closely related to the size of the population and the role of tourism in the given settlements.
The Theoretical Background of Local Sport Policy in Hungary: Sport Concepts of Hungarian Cities of County Rank
In line with international trends, we could also observe in Hungary beginning in the late 1990s increasing attention given by local governments to sports. Hungarian provisions of law related to sports (including, in particular, Act I of 2004 on sports) put local governments in charge of some very important tasks. Among other things, local governments were to determine the local concept of sports development and to ensure its implementation, cooperate with local sports organizations and sports associations, and as owners maintain and operate the sports facilities. In light of the above facts, the study analyzes the sport concepts adopted by the local governments of the Hungarian cities of county rank and tries to find the answers to the following questions: 1. To what extent are the documents concerned in accordance with the requirements usually drafted for the development concepts and which platforms they involve?; 2. To what extent did the local governments recognize the relationship between the sports and place marketing on the level of concept-making?
As a conclusion of the study, the following significant establishments can be made: 1. Comparing the existing sport concepts with the general requirements of the development concepts, a large number of deficiencies can be observed; 2. The areas mentioned in the situation-analysis part of these documents are in close relationship with the importance of the topics concerned; 3. The local governments of the cities of county rank decisively recognized the role of sports in place marketing.
One of the most important segments of the post-1990 transformation of territory-based administration in Hungary was the changing of the geographical structure of deconcentrated state administrative organisations. The study, on the one hand, provides a brief overview of the history of deconcentrated state administrative organisations in Hungary, and discusses the regional characteristics of the organisational transformations after the political changes, taking six moments in time (the middle of 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2012 respectively) as the basis. On the other hand, using the same six snapshots in time, it examines which settlements experienced favourable or unfavourable changes, and what factors influenced the selection of the seats for these institutions.
The results of the survey indicated that the alignment of territorial structure of deconcentrated state administrative organizations to the planning-statistical, NUTS 2 regions has already begun at the end of the 1990s. The government formed in 2006 took significant steps in the area of aligning the spatial structure of the organizations with the planning-statistical regions; however, in the period after 2010 the significance of the county level increased again. In the period examined, no significant changes took place at the top and at the bottom of the list according to the number of seats: the largest settlements of the individual regions reinforced their leading positions.
Gábor Ungvári, Zsolt Jolánkai, András Kis and Zsolt Kozma
In many years excess water inundations generate a major obstacle to farming in the lowland part of Hungary, including the Marosszög area. Diverting water to large distances requires an infrastructure that is costly to develop and maintain. Alternatively, low-lying local land segments could be withdrawn from cultivation and utilized to collect the surplus water. The Ecological Focus Area (EFA) requirement of the EU points to the same direction: it requires that 5% of arable land is converted to other, ecologically more beneficial uses. During the research project it was tested if it is feasible to apply a novel economic policy instrument, an auction to trade land use change obligations, to achieve the EFA requirement in a cost effective way through the cooperation of farmers, while also creating a practical solution to manage the seasonal surplus water cover on land. The research was carried out in an interdisciplinary way: a dynamically coupled fully integrated hydrological model, including surface and subsurface modules, was applied by engineers to better understand the interconnections of land use, local hydrology and the role of the water diversion infrastructure; while a pilot auction exercise was conducted by economists with the participation of farmers to understand if cost reductions can be achieved through cooperation, as opposed to individual fulfilment of EFA obligations. The analysis also revealed which segments of the water diversion network are economic to maintain. It was confirmed that it is possible to improve local water management and satisfy the EFA requirements at a reduced cost if appropriate economic incentives are applied to trigger the cooperation of farmers.
Nowadays more and more attention is devoted to the spatial development of the location of sports facilities within cities. The main aim of our paper is to observe the most important spatial characteristics of their development in Hungarian cities of county rank. In these cities three main periods of development of sports facilities can be observed. Larger sports facilities were constructed especially on the edge of cities or in the suburbs, while in the case of smaller facilities a bigger role was played by locations within the city boundaries. As regards the factors influencing the location of sports facilities, the most important role was played by the location of available land areas, besides accessibility and from the mid-1960s links to existing facilities can be mentioned as well.