Tatra’s lakes are vulnerable ecosystems and an important element of the alpine landscape. Mainly some shallow lake basins succumb to intense detritus sedimentation, fine fractions of material from the catchment area or to the overgrowing of water level by vegetation. In this paper, changes and dynamics of the 12 Tatra’s lake shorelines that were selected based on the detailed mapping of their extent are pointed out. Changes were assessed by accurate comparisons of historical and current orthophoto maps from the years 1949, 1955 and 2015 – and therefore, based on the oldest and the latest relevant materials. Due to the overgrowing of lakes caused by vegetation, their water surface decreased from −0.9% up to −47.9%, during the examined period. Losses were caused by the overgrowing of open water surface by the communities of sedges and peat bogs. The most significant dynamics of the shorelines during the last decades were reached by those lakes, into which fine sediments were simultaneously deposited by means of mountain water coarse. These sediments made the marginal parts of the lake basins shallower and accelerated rapid expansion of vegetation to the detriment of the open water surface. The overgrowing of shallow moraine lakes lying in the vegetation zone is a significant phenomenon of the High Tatras alpine landscape. It leads to their gradual extinction, turn into peat bogs and wet alpine meadows.
The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards) and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition) are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.
The aim of this paper is to describe agricultural landscapes in the cadastral area of Hriňova and their development in the context of social and economic changes over the past 60 years. This area is characterized by the occurrence of historical structures of agricultural landscape (HSAL) which are important because they comprise various cultural, environmental and ecological aspects. The assessment of land use changes on the two scales of cadastral area and selected small localities highlights that the most important trend here is agricultural extensification. The results show that despite these changes in land use, the historical structures in the agricultural landscape represented by forms of anthropogenic relief remain a permanent part of this research area.
This paper deals with the new classification of land use changes. We chose Nitra town in Slovakia as a model area. We examined changes of land use for the period 2003-2013. The main result of this work is a table for types of land use changes and a map that shows the location of these changes in Nitra town. Nitra is constantly expanding its area and it is also significantly changing within its borders. Agriculturally used surroundings of the town are being transformed into build-up areas and industrial parks. This transformation causes a loss of agricultural land and vegetation, in general. Agriculture in this region has been gradually declining and disappearing in the past years. On the other side, urbanisation, technicisation and industrialisation are highly supported
The main goal of this paper is the application of qualitative and quantitative free available data for geographical delineation based on reconnaissance research in vineyard landscape. The results of delineation are useful in agricultural management or environmental planning. Our delineation may serve as the basic information on site conditions of vineyards near Pezinok (Slovakia), with historical use from the beginning of 13th century. We have studied the actual land cover and classified physiotopes of the study area into a set of relatively homogenous and coherent landscape units. The landscape units defined in this work consist of homogenous physiotopes in terms of their structural and functional characteristics, which have been shaped by natural factors (land-forms, soil type and subtype, geological base, elevation, slope, aspect, solar radiation and normal different vegetation index (NDVI)). The characteristics were used to define 23 landscape units in qualitative delineation (based on both qualitative and quantitative data). Only quantitative characteristics – elevation, aspect, slope, solar radiation and NDVI, were used in a K-means cluster analysis to define the 17 landscape units. The number of landscape units was computed by WB-index, and standardisation of data was computed by factor analysis. The whole classification process was statistically significant. The strength of the grouping procedure was tested by using Discriminant Analysis, which found that 92.70% of objects in qualitative and 98.50% of objects in quantitative delineation were correctly classified.
This article describes the process of land consolidations in Slovakia. Fundamental goals of land consolidation are defined in the paper. Land ownership is briefly described with emphasis on historical development. Functional reorganisation of the territory is described in detail. The authors state that this objective is in land consolidation designs, often neglected and landscaping is shifted into the background. Preference is given to activities associated with ownership as evidenced by the common tendency to award contracts for simple land consolidation. The numbers of awarded contracts for comprehensive and simple landscape consolidations from 1990 to the present were evaluated. Reasons for the observed stagnation of comprehensive land consolidation projects have been mentioned. Causes have been found and the problem was displayed from various positions. Finally, possible solutions have been found in order to stimulate discussion on the topic: why there is stagnation in designing of land consolidations in Slovakia.
Ground beetles (Carabidae) were used to evaluate the bio indication environmental incidence. The ground beetle material (2,341 individuals, 30 species) was collected between 2015 and 2017 using pitfall traps in three types of forest habitats with different disturbance rates. The comparison of carabid’s sensitivity as bio indicators has been evaluated by using three methods: (i) community index of ground beetles (IKS), (ii) ellipsoid biovolume (EV) and (iii) flight ability of the carabids. Using the Monte Carlo permutation test, we did not record the statistically significant changes in IKS values, nor does a change in the representation of carabids in the bioindicative group A, E and R. On the contrary, we confirmed the statistically significant changes in the average values of ellipsoid biovolume in biotopes and between biotopes (the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis test -ANOVA (p-value = 0.00)). A higher number of macropterous species were recorded in biotopes with high disturbance as compared to the biotopes with low disturbance.
Traditional agricultural landscapes (TALs) in Slovakia are mosaics of small-scale arable fields and permanent agricultural cultivations resulting from continuous succession over centuries. The objective in this paper is to develop a strategy for the protection and management of TAL in the Liptovská Teplička cadastral area, which has mountainous arable land and grassland TALs. Driving forces, threats and other trends related to these TALs were identified, based on the valuation of land-use changes, socioeconomic and demographic phenomena and on biodiversity and sociological research. The strategy was oriented towards optimal multi-functional utilization and management of the investigated landscapes