The aim of the paper is to summarise the development of shopping centres and their current locations, types and sizes in Warsaw and Bratislava using a comparative analysis method. Both cities are situated in post-communist countries where the transformation of the retail sector shows many similarities. Before the 1990s, globalisation processes could not be observed in the retail sector in either of these countries. After the 1990s, some new forms of retailing started to appear in both Warsaw and Bratislava. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and modern shopping centres came to existence as a new form of retailing which influenced other traditional forms of retailing in these cities.
Over the last twenty years or so, researchers’ attention to the issue of food deserts has increased in the geographical literature. Accessibility to large-scale retail units is one of the essential and frequently-used indicators leading to the identification and mapping of food deserts. Numerous accessibility measures of various types are available for this purpose. Euclidean distance and street network distance rank among the most frequently-used approaches, although they may lead to slightly different results. The aim of this paper is to compare various approaches to the accessibility to food stores and to assess the differences in the results gained by these methods. Accessibility was measured for residential block centroids, with applications of various accessibility measures in a GIS environment. The results suggest a strong correspondence between Euclidean distance and a little more accurate street network distance approach, applied in the case of the urban environment of Bratislava-Petržalka, Slovakia.
During the second half of the 20thcentury, consumption patterns in the developed market economies have stabilised, while in the transition/EU-accession countries these patterns were accepted with unusual speed and dynamics. Differences, changes and current trends in Western Europe and post-socialist countries in the quantity and concentration of retailing activities have been minimised, whereas some distinctions in the quality of retail environments have remained. Changes have occurred in buying habits, shopping behaviour and consumer preferences basically for all population groups across the generations. This article is a theoretical and conceptual introduction to a Special Issue of the Moravian Geographical Reports (Volume 26, No. 3) on “The contemporary retail environment: shopping behaviour, consumers’ preferences, retailing and geomarketing”. The basic features which have occurred in European retailing environments are presented, together with a comparison (and confrontation) between Western and Eastern Europe. The multidisciplinary nature of retailing opens the discussion not only from a geographical perspective but also from the point of view of other social science disciplines that naturally interconnect in the retail environments.
The shopping behaviours of teenagers in shopping centres in Bratislava (Slovakia) is compared to those of seniors in this paper. The analysis focuses on the perception of shopping centres by teenagers and seniors in the context of time (shopping frequency), social (with whom they shop) and financial (amount of money spent) factors. The survey was conducted on random samples of 504 teenagers and 431 seniors. To test the hypotheses, group means were evaluated (Analysis of Variance models). When assessing the spatial aspects of teenagers’ and seniors’ shopping behaviours, a concentric zone approach was used. It can be concluded that Bratislava teenagers are not as sensitive consumers as seniors in the context of the variables assessed in the survey. Teenagers perceive shopping centres as a normal part of their consumption behaviours. Seniors perceive the shopping centres less positively and they spent a shorter time there. Also, in the case of seniors, the frequency of their visits to shopping centres increased in the context of their positive perceptions.
The measurement and evaluation of the attractiveness of shopping centres in the Czech and the Slovak Republics is examined in this paper, countries which had experienced seventy years of development within a single state. The methodological basis for measuring the attractiveness of 130 shopping centres is an evaluation of the factors that can be described as objective (exogenous and endogenous) and subjective (in vivo and in vitro approach). An aggregate indicator of the overall attractiveness of each shopping centre was computed as a combination of the sub-variables. Based on previous international studies, the factors (variables influencing attractiveness) that are typical for shopping malls anywhere in the world, as well as for the original specific information for the Czech-Slovak retail environment, enable a generalization of the results at least to the East Central European level, and to carry out a comparison with any other market environment.
The long-distance public transport services among the eight regional centres of Slovakia, representing the key urban locations with concentrations of most of the country’s services, including business, educational and financial institutions, as well as political power, are examined in this article. It is assumed that the mutual transport interconnections within this group of cities will be a focus for public transport operators in their attempt to gain the largest possible share of potential customers, passengers who would otherwise be users of individual transport means. Hence, one of main aims of this study is to compare public and individual transport modes, and the possibilities offered by them in the mutual interconnections of major regional centres in the country
The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.