The aortic arch usually gives off three major arterial branches: the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. The most frequently occurring developmental variations of arterial trunks origins are a joined brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery origin, the left vertebral artery branching from the aortic arch, a double aortic arch, and a change of sequence of branching arteries. The current report presents the rare asymptomatic situation of the right subclavian artery originating as the last individual branching from the aortic arch. This abnormality was accidentally discovered in a computed tomography examination of a 69-year old male patient. The examination showed that the artery went towards the neck posteriorly from the trachea. The anatomical anomaly was interpreted as being an arteria lusoria.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the origin of the inferior epigastric artery, in relation to the inguinal ligament, in various stages of human life. The study was conducted on randomly selected 220 non-fixed cadavers, including 110 males and 110 females, from the age of the 7th month of prenatal life, to 82 years. In all examined bodies, the inferior epigastric artery originated mostly from the external iliac, or less commonly, from the femoral artery. Three types of origin were observed: above, at the level or below the ligament. In males, the lowest incidence of typical anatomical origin, over the ligament, was observed in the group aged 60-69 years. Herein, the artery departed usually on the level of the ligament. The highest incidence of typical anatomical origin was found during the prenatal period and among children. Similar data, but with higher asymmetry, was revealed among females. The lowest incidence of typical origin was seen on the left side in the group aged 60-69. Less commonly, the artery originated at the level or occasionally below the ligament. In conclusion, the origin of the inferior epigastric artery differs throughout prenatal and postnatal life, in both sexes. However, it is usually located above the inguinal ligament.
Hypoxic cancer cells are more aggressive and responsible for more efficient metastasis and recurrence. It seems worth-while, hence, to supplement current cytostatic drugs therapy (i.e. cisplatin) with hypoxia cytotoxic agents (i.e. tirapazamine), the toxicity of which is activated by hypoxia. Cisplatin and tirapazamine can change a redox equilibrium and consequently lead to changes in cell metabolism, fibrosis and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cisplatin/tirapazamine toxicological synergism. In doing so we tested selected kidney oxidative stress parameters, as well as nephrotoxicity markers, in plasma and urine. Once a week for 6 weeks, rats received intraperitoneally two doses of tirapazamine (5 or 10 mg/kg bw), 2 hours before cisplatin (2 mg/kg bw) was applied. Our results show that Tirapazamine (TP) had no significant adverse effect on the redox balance, oxidative stress and kidney function in rats receiving cisplatin (CP). However, TP significantly increased protein concentration in the kidneys of rats. In all tested groups, a significant decrease in NADH concentration in kidneys was recorded, which could indicate disorder in the cell metabolism. TP also was found to have prevented bacterial infection caused by CP. In summary, there was no nephrotoxic synergy of TP with CP at an unacceptable level.
A rare case of asymptomatic traumatic neuroma, triggered by the performed amputation within the right thigh due to the osteosarcoma is reported. The MRI examination has shown a focal lesion at the end of the sciatic nerve, with isointense signal and weak contrast enhancement on T1-, high signal on T2-weighted images, without restriction diffusion on DWI. The morphology did not significantly change after 12 months, which confirms the primary diagnosis. The main limitation of the case is the lack of histological confirmation, since the lesion was not removed.
Littoral cell angioma is a rare primary, vascular tumor thought to originate from the endothelial cells lining the sinuses of the splenic red pulp (the “littoral cells”). It is a benign, usually asymptomatic lesion diagnosed incidentally. Ultrasound and tomography appearance is not characteristic and histopathological examination is required. This work provides a case-study of littoral cell angioma which was seen in a 55-year-old female who complained of non-specific upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed multiple hypo-attenuated splenic lesions suggestive for metastasis. A splenectomy was performed and routine microscopic examination supported by immunohistochemistry reactions with CD68, CD34 and CD31 showed littoral cell angioma.
The redox cycle triggered by one electron reduction of doxorubicin and tirapazamine - both anticancer agents - leads to superoxide production. This superoxide production itself removes one iron atom from the [4Fe-4S] cluster, being an active center of aconitase. In addition, the incurred changes in cell redox equilibrium may affect lipid metabolism. The aim of the study was to evaluate a concomitant effect of both drugs on hepatic aconitase activity and triglycerides level. In our study, doxorubicin (1.8 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) six times, once a week, within male Wistar rats, to achieve a cumulative dose of 10.8 mg/kg b.w. Two hours before every doxorubicin administration, tirapazamine in the dose of either 5 or 10 mg/kg b.w. was also i.p. injected. A week after withdrawing drug administration, the liver was taken for biochemical analysis. Therein, an increase in aconitase activity and a decrease in triglycerides level was seen in all groups exposed to doxorubicin. Our work demonstrated that tirapazamine administration had no influence on both tested parameters, but its higher dose rate normalized aconitase activity affected by doxorubicin.
The main side effects of the administration of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer drug, is the generation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal cells. As a result, redox disorders and secondary oxidative stress are developed. Doxorubicin ROS generation is attributed to enzymes that are produced abundantly in hepatocytes. Oxidative stress has been a well-known risk factor of doxorubicin-related toxicity. However, in addition, according to the data collected in the last decade, changes in thyroxin status can propagate ROS generation, and, thus, initiate the doxorubicin hepatic effect. Moreover, both compounds have an impact on the cell metabolism. The aim of the study was to verify the thesis that thyroxin can modulate the effect of doxorubicin with regard to redox status and lipid metabolism disorders. In our work, we determined the ratio of NADP+/ NADPH and NAD+/NADH in liver homogenates, blood ketone bodies and triglycerides in the liver and blood in rats treated with doxorubicin and thyroxin. Our results indicate that thyroxin has an insignificant effect on NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH ratios and on hepatic and blood triglycerides. Moreover, thyroxin administration normalized the level of blood ketone bodies that was disturbed by doxorubicin.
Caffeine (120 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.