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Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Benedetto Falsini and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). CACD is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Transmission is rarely autosomal recessive. Overall prevalence is currently 1-9 per 100 000. CACD is caused by mutations in the PRPH2 and GUCY2D genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, fluorescein angiography, electroretinography (showing cone dystrophy) and stereo fundus photography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Fabiana D’Esposito and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Bardet- Biedl syndrome (BBS). The disease has autosomal recessive inheritance, a prevalence varying from one in 13 500 to one in 160 000, and is caused by mutations in the ARL6, BBIP1, BBS1, BBS2, BBS4, BBS5, BBS7, BBS9, BBS10, BBS12, CEP290, IFT172, IFT27, LZTFL1, MKKS, MKS1, NPHP1, SDCCAG8, TRIM32, TTC8 and WDPCP genes. The clinical diagnosis of BBS is based on four primary features or three primary features plus two secondary features. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Lucia Ziccardi and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Mendelian glaucomas, a large heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, classified according to age of onset as congenital glaucoma, juvenile glaucoma and age-related glaucoma. Variations in the TEK, MYOC, ASB10, NTF4, OPA1, WDR36 and OPTN genes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and variations in the CYP1B1 and LTBP2 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of congenital glaucoma is estimated at 1-9 per 100 000, that of juvenile glaucoma at 1 per 50 000, while there is insufficient data to establish the prevalence of age-related glaucoma. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy and fundoscopy. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Falsini Benedetto and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR). GACR is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and has a prevalence of 1/50000 in Finland. In the international literature there are approximately 200 biochemically confirmed cases. GACR is caused by mutations in the OAT gene. Clinical diagnosis involves ophthalmological examination, electrophysiological testing (electroretinography - ERG), coherence tomography and assay of ornithine levels in body fluids. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Inherited eye misalignment (IEM). Forms of IEM associated with variations in the SALL4, CHN1, TUBB3 and KIF21A genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas those associated with variations in the ROBO3, PHOX2A, HOXA1 and HOXB1 genes have autosomal recessive inheritance. The prevalence of MS is currently unknown. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, visual acuity testing and fundus examination. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Andi Abeshi, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar, Francesco Viola, Leonardo Colombo and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for corneal dystrophies and other Mendelian corneal diseases (CDs). CDs are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (autosomal recessive inheritance is rare). The overall prevalence is currently unknown. CDs are caused by mutations in the AGBL1, CHST6, COL8A2, DCN, GSN, KRT12, KRT3, NLRP1, PAX6, PIKFYVE, PRDM5, SLC4A11, TACSTD2, TCF4, TGFBI, UBIAD1, VSX1, ZEB1, and ZNF469 genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, confocal microscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.