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  • Author: Florian Gambuś x
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Abstract

Municipal sewage sludge contains considerable amounts of macro and microelements essential for plant nutrition. With decreasing use of natural and organic fertilizers, there is a need to search for alternative sources of organic matter (which is a substrate for humus reproduction). In a field experiment carried out on heavy soil with neutral reaction, the effect of single application of municipal sewage sludge in a dose of 5.34 Mg·ha−1 DM was compared to an equivalent dose of mineral fertilizers. The test plant was spring barley. After application of municipal sewage sludge, slight positive changes in the chemical properties of the soil were observed. The sewage sludge increased the yield of spring barley grain and straw by, respectively, 14 and 13% in relation to treatment with mineral fertilization. Spring barley fertilized with sewage sludge contained more elements than barley grown only on mineral fertilizers. It was shown that application of municipal sewage sludge to the soil had a significant effect on increase in nutrient uptake by spring barley. Fe was taken up in the highest amount, followed by Al and Mn, and Co was taken up in the smallest amounts. Utilization of Fe, Mn, Co and Al from sewage sludge by spring barley was at 6.0, 4.7, 0.7 and 0.7%, respectively of the amount applied to the soil with this waste. The mass ratios (Fe:Mn, Fe:Al, Mn:Co) analyzed in spring barley biomass were much wider in straw than in grain. In terms of grain feed value, Fe:Mn ratio in grain and straw was greater than optimum.

Abstract

The proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acids profile as well as mineral composition of frozen fillets from Pangasius catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) imported to Poland (PP), Germany (PG) and Ukraine (PU) and fillets from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotcus) imported to Poland (TP) and Germany (TG) were investigated. PU contained ten times more fat than PG and PP. Tilapia fillets contained higher levels of n-3 fatty acids and showed more preferable n-6/n-3 ratio than pangasius fillets. The fillets of PG contained higher levels of protein and essential amino acids than PU and PP, however the amino acids composition of pangasius and tilapia fillets was similar for all specimens. The fillets of PP and PU contained significantly higher amounts of sodium than other studied groups, which suggests that they were subjected to additional treatment to increase their water holding capacity. The results show significant differences in the nutritional composition of pangasius depending on their place of import, thus it was recommended that more information regarding the nutritional composition of the frozen fillets sold through self-service freezers should be provided for the final consumer.

Abstract

Due to the fact that soils in Poland are mostly light soils, there is a need to improve their physical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, as a result of the decrease in the number of farm animals, a decrease in production of natural fertilizers can be observed. Low production of natural fertilizers speaks in favor of agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge in Poland. Municipal sewage sludge is composed of large quantities of macronutrients necessary for plants. This waste also contains significant amounts of organic substance. Chemical properties, including a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and often calcium, speak in favor of environmental use of municipal sewage sludge. Increasing requirements with respect to environmental protection cause the necessity to assess the effects of using organic waste for fertilization. In a farm located in the commune of Iwanowice (Małopolska province), municipal sewage sludge was applied under spring barley cultivation. The soil on which municipal sewage sludge was applied was classified into the category of heavy soils with neutral reaction. When assessing the content of available nutrients (P, K, Mg) in the soil, their low content was determined. After application of municipal sewage sludge in a dose of 24 Mg fresh matter per hectare, which corresponded to 5.34 Mg DM·ha−1, under spring barley, beneficial changes in chemical properties of the soil were observed. An increase in soil abundance in organic carbon and total nitrogen was observed, as well as an increase in the content of available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Based on the results of the conducted chemical analyses, it was established that biomass of spring barley fertilized with sewage sludge contained more macronutrients (N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg), which improved its feed value. The field experiment showed that application of municipal sewage sludge increased uptake of macronutrients by spring barley.