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Filip Havlíček and Miroslav Morcinek

Abstract

This article describes select examples of waste management from the Roman Empire (27 BCE to 365 CE). Classical written sources and anthropological and archeological literature were studied. The central theme of this paper is ancient man’s relationship with waste and his responses to pollution.

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Filip Havlíček

Abstract

This article describes examples of material and waste management with a focus on select Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic sites. It examines the structuring of space and landscape from the perspective of waste management as a certain need of natural human behavior. The article touches on the concept of purity and on defining the creation of waste.

Open access

Filip Havlíček, Adéla Pokorná and Jakub Zálešák

Abstract

The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

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Filip Havlíček and Martin Kuča

Abstract

This article deals with the relationship between humans and waste in the Bronze Age. Based on selected examples of waste management strategies from the European Bronze Age, it presents an overview of different strategies. In comparison with the preceding Stone Age, a new type of material began to appear: metal. The process involved in producing metal objects, however, brought with it the appearance of a specific type of waste material that is indelibly linked to the production of metal. This article also deals with the significance of ritualized social activities in the Bronze Age, which materialized in waste and waste management strategies.

Open access

Filip Havlíček and Martin Kuča

Abstract

This article describes examples of waste management systems from archaeological sites in Europe and the Middle East. These examples are then contextualized in the broader perspectives of environmental history. We can confidently claim that the natural resource use of societies predating the Lower Palaeolithic was in equilibrium with the environment. In sharp contrast stand communities from the Upper Palaeolithic and onwards, when agriculture appeared and provided opportunities for what seemed like unlimited expansion.