István Barthalos, József Bognár, Balázs Fügedi, Judit Plachy and Ferenc Ihász
Physical performance, body composition, and quality of life in elderly women from clubs for the retired and living in twilight homes
Study aim: To explore how elderly people with different living conditions are characterized by their fitness, body composition, and quality of life.
Material and methods: Women aged 60 years and over (n = 60; age = 76.2 ± 7.6 years) were examined in cross-sectional study from a medium-sized city in western Hungary. Participants were chosen from a twilight home (n=27, age = 79.4 ± 7.7years) and clubs for retired people (n = 33, age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years). Physical fitness status was assessed by Fullerton Functional Fitness Test - Senior Fitness Test (FFFT); body composition (BC) with Inbody-720 bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy; and quality of life with WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire. Data were analysed with the use of t-test for independent samples and stepwise discriminant analysis.
Results: FFFT shows significant differences in each variable: lower and upper body strength, aerobic endurance, upper and lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance. These variables were significantly higher in the clubs for retired people. The BC of twilight home residents was significantly lower in height and fat-free mass. Regarding quality of life, there were significant differences in perception, autonomy, and sociability for the favour of elderly in clubs; however, there were no differences in activities of past, present and future, or differences in attitudes towards death or intimacy.
Conclusions: A sedentary and institutionalized lifestyle with little variety in daily activity and programing has a negative effect on physical fitness status, body composition, and quality of life. Self-motivation, active lifestyle, and regular and varied programs seem to have leading roles in the quality of life in elder population.
Judit Kopkáné Plachy, Magdolna Vécseyné Kovách, Ferenc Ihász and József Bognár
Study aim: regular physical activity is important both for the prevention of illnesses and for rehabilitation purposes because it has significant impact on the physical and mental health of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess whether two different half-year regular training programmes had positive effects on health dimensions, bone mineral density, and fitness status in population of women aged over 60 years.
Material and methods: older women were assessed in a supervised exercise trial conducted at a rheumatology centre. A half-year intervention program involved 45 women (N = 45) aged over 60 years in Hungary. The sample was randomly divided into three groups. The “Training group” (n = 14; M age 64.07 years) did physical exercises three times per week. The “Mental group” (n = 16; M age 67.88 years) had two physical exercise sessions and one group discussion session about healthy lifestyle. The “Control group” (n = 15; M age 63.73 years) was not involved in any activities. Physical and mental health status (SF-36), bone mineral density (BMD), and fitness status (FFFT) were analysed.
Results: repeated measures ANOVA produced a significant main effect (F = 2389; p < 0.001). The differences between the “Training” and “Control” groups (p < 0.01) and between the “Mental” and “Control” groups (p < 0.05) were meaningful. The Group x Time comparison was significant in six scales of health status measurements; two scales of bone mineral density grew significantly. All the fitness test variables show significant results in between subjects effect.
Conclusions: both the Training and Mental groups significantly contributed to a better health status of the participants.
Zsolt Szakály, Ferenc Ihász, Csaba Konczos, Balázs Fügedi and József Bognár
Study aim: Over the last two decades, the body fat mass has been increasing and the level of physical fitness has been decreasing in school-aged children. Due to the health-related concerns that have arisen regarding school-aged children, the Hungarian government introduced everyday physical education in 2012. Since girls are more disposed to higher body fat and low fitness levels, the aim of our study was to characterise the physique, body composition and aerobic capacity of 10 to 14-year-old girls three years after the introduction of the new curriculum with daily PE lessons.
Material and methods: All of the primary schools that were selected to participate in this study serve as partnership schools in the University of West Hungary’s teacher training programme (N = 8). The sample included only those upper primary school girls (10 to 14 years of age) who participated in the everyday physical education lesson (N = 543). Standard anthropometric techniques and a 20m shuttle run test were selected for the analysis.
Results: An important result of this study was the finding that differences in the body composition features were consistently significant among the age groups. However, there were no differences among the age groups in the results of the 20 m multi-stage fitness test, nor in the girls’ relative aerobic capacity.
Conclusions: It can be presumed that an unfavourable body composition and poor fitness occur primarily in the prepuberty years. Everyday physical education serves as a good opportunity for shaping the girls’ fitness level and body composition, and also for encouraging healthy active living.
Robert Podstawski, Piotr Markowski, Cain C. T. Clark, Dariusz Choszcz, Ferenc Ihász, Stanimir Stojiljković and Piotr Gronek
The aim of this study was to develop international standards for evaluating strength endurance with the use of the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. The results of 3862 women (Poland – 2502, Great Britain – 500, Hungary – 412, Serbia – 448) and 5971 men (Poland – 4517, Great Britain – 500, Hungary – 451, Serbia – 503) aged 18‐25 (mean age of 20.36 ± 0.94 and 20.05 ± 1.25 y, respectively) were collated between 2004 and 2018. The students’ strength endurance was evaluated in the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. The results were expressed on a uniform scale with the 3‐sigma rule which was used to develop the T‐score scale for the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. Men completed 56.69 cycles/3 min and women – 48.84/3 min on average. The best male participant completed 82 burpees, and the best female participant – 73 burpees. The majority of male and female participants (66.71% and 68.18%, respectively) were characterized by average strength endurance in the 3‐Minute Burpee Test (range of scores: 47‐66 and 37‐60 cycles/3 min, respectively). Very good strength endurance (76‐85 and 72‐83 cycles/3 min, respectively) was noted in the smallest percentage of male and female participants (0.52% and 0.26%, respectively). Similar studies should be carried out in other countries and in different age groups to develop objective international classification standards for variously‐aged individuals.