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Monika Barabasz, Felicja Lwow and Emilian Zadarko


The prevention of chronic diseases, especially metabolic disorders, is based on modification of behavioural risk factors, in particular eating habits and physical activity. Numerous population studies have demonstrated a relationship between regular physical activity and decreased levels of risk factors for CVD (cardiovascular disease), type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Increasing the level of physical activity as part of the programs implemented for disease prevention or health promotion for selected populations requires a behavioural diagnosis, whereby an essential element is the preferred leisure-time activity in terms of the structure of negative health indicators. Evaluation of physical activity under population studies requires a simple, validated and inexpensive tool to be used in medical practice or health promotion. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ) is a tool currently often used and validated with laboratory methods. Standard MLTPAQ allows for assessment of the level of physical activity undertaken in leisure time. The authors present an algorithm for assessing leisure-time physical activity level based on MLTPAQ. The paper also reviews the practical application of the MLTPAQ questionnaire on healthy and patient populations in Poland and other countries by specialists in public health, health promotion and in medical practice.

Open access

Felicja Lwow, Małgorzata Korzeniowska, Joanna Dadacz, Ewa Hladik, Agata Łukojko and Anna Denkowska


The demographic situation of Poland as well as other developed countries shows a growing number of people at retirement age. According to the data from GUS (Central Statistical Office), their number reached 6.5 mln in Poland in 2011, and the prognosis for shows 8,3 mln by the year 2035. The consequence of this fact is a necessity of including the specificity of this age group in the functioning of Polish health care as well as in preventive medicine and health promotion. Unifying the health needs of this age group would be disadvantageous due to the diversification of physical efficiency level in the psychosomatic and social aspect. Nevertheless, the key problem is to distinguish the optimal health care models which include not only chronic conditions and dysfunctions but also the quality of life and socially independent life style that guarantee the lack of isolation and social exclusion. Distinguishing the four action models, namely people considered as healthy by the system, autonomously functioning people with chronic conditions, and people who need other people or institutional care to function in a society, seems to cover the individual needs of this group. Concluding, the National Health Care needs to work out some proceeding algorithms for these models. The optimal program adjustment for the needs of the target group would most certainly improve the effectiveness of the Health Care.

Open access

Agnieszka Lintowska, Agnieszka Filipczak, Joanna Dadacz and Felicja Lwow


Introduction: Obesity and overweight are health problems that particularly increase the risk of metabolic diseases, being a disease entity itself. It is confirmed that nutritious mistakes and hypokinesia constitute the basic threats in alimentary obesity.

The aim of the study: An attempt was made to evaluate the frequency of prevalence of obesity due to consumption habits and motor preferences of children aged 12-13 residing in the Tarłów Commune representing a rural area and children from the Primary School in Wrocław representing a metropolitan area.

Subjects and methods: The scope of the study covered 148 children from both rural and metropolitan areas. The children were divided into 4 groups of 37 based on gender and place of living. BMI indicator and centile charts prepared in OLAF studies for the Polish population were used to evaluate the level of obesity. Custom surveys concerning consumption habits and children motor activity were used to evaluate lifestyle habits. The results of the study were subjected to statistical evaluation using Statistica v. 10 software.

Results: Within the studied group of children aged 12-13 obesity and overweight occurred among 30% of girls and 25% of boys, whereas a tendency for more frequent occurrences of overweight was observed within girls (26%) and obesity within boys (5%). Everyday diet among the studied group depends on their place of living. Girls from a metropolitan area more frequently ate high-fiber products, unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins relative to girls from the rural area. Differences in preferred forms of physical activity based on gender were shown.

Conclusions: There is an urgent need to implement education and preventive or health promotion programs in the field of obesity prevention in rural areas, with special attention to physical activity and modification of consumption habits.