The task of producing a generic model of the modal choice decision making process is a challenging one. Modal choice is strongly influenced by the infrastructure limitations and geographical constraints of the area in which the decision is being made. With this in mind, addressing modal choice on an individual basis for each region may be the optimal solution. This is the approach adopted in this paper. The creation of a modal choice model is a multistage process of which this paper addresses the first stage, the production a framework of the decision making process. Firstly, a number of criteria that are commonly used in modal choice models are identified. Then a number of gaps in the criteria utilized in previous papers are established. Subsequently, the method used to produce a framework of the decision making process within North West England’s Atlantic Gateway is outlined. Through consultation with transport industry experts in North West England, an initial list of sixty eight papers was reduced to thirty six that were considered to be of specific relevance to modern day freight transportation within their region. The criteria used in each of these papers were then, along with further industry input, used to create the foundation on which a modal choice framework specific to the Atlantic Gateway could be built. A greater understanding of what influences modal choice within this region will allow informed decisions to be made by policy makers on how to more efficiently utilize the available modes of freight transport. Having established this, future work can then go on to build upon these findings. This paper recommends that future work is performed to establish the weights of each criteria and sub-criteria within the framework. This should then be followed by establishing industry’s perceptions of the best and worst alternatives for moving freight within the Atlantic Gateway.
The importance of NTS has been realised in many safety critical industries. Recently the maritime domain has also embraced the idea and implemented an NTS training course for both merchant marine deck and engineering officers. NTS encompass both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situational awareness, teamwork, decision making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. Well-developed NTS training allow ship’s officers to recognise quickly when a problem is developing and manage the situation safely and efficiently with the available team members. As a result, the evaluation and grading of deck officers’ NTS is necessary to assure safety at sea, reduce the effects of human error on-board ships, and allow ship board operations to be performed safely. This paper identifies the skills necessary for deck officers to effectively perform their duties on the bridge of a ship. To achieve this, initially, a taxonomy of deck officers’ NTS is developed through a review of relevant literature and the conducting of semi-structured interviews with experienced seafarers. Subsequently, NTS weighting data is collected from experienced seafarers to allow the weight of each element of the taxonomy to be established by the use of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
This work investigated kinetics and thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polycarbonate (ABS/PC) blend using thermogravimetric analysis in the range of 25 to 520°C. For thermal degradation of blend, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated under various heating rates as 5, 10, 15 and 20°C/min using iso-conversional model-free methods (Kissinger, Flynn-Wall- Ozawa and Friedman). Mass loss of the blend as a function of temperature was plotted as thermogravimetric curve (TG) while derivative values of mass loss were drawn as derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curve. Using Kissinger method, Ea was 51.4 kJ/mol, while values calculated from FWO and Friedman method were 86–161 and 30–251 kJ/mol respectively. Results showed increasing trend of Ea with higher conversion values indicating different degradation mechanisms at the initial and final stages of the experiment. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH), Gibbs free energy (ΔG) and entropy change (ΔS) were also calculated.