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  • Author: Farah Andleeb x
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Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma


Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans.

Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%.

Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

Open access
Catha Edulis Active Principle, Cathinone, Suppresses Motor Coordination, Accelerates Anxiety and Alters the Levels of Dopamine and its Metabolites in the Limbic Areas of Male Swiss Albino Mice


Cathinone, the active principle of khat (Catha edulis), stimulates, excites and produces euphoric feelings in khat users. Locomotor and rearing activities, either individual or in groups, of male Swiss albino mice were decreased significantly compared to the control. Motor coordination tests (rotarod, rope climb and grip tests) have shown decreased motor performance in the mice treated with cathinone compared to the control. The elevated plus maze test has shown significant anxiety in the mice compared to the control. Contents of dopamine and its metabolite, homovanillic acid, were increased in the limbic areas compared to the control group. In contrast, contents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid were depleted significantly and dose dependently compared to the control group in the limbic areas of mice. In conclusion, natural cathinone has depleted motor coordination, accelerated anxiety in mice and altered the contents of dopamine and its metabolites.

Open access