J.C. Marquez, M. Rempfler, F. Seoane and K. Lindecrantz
During the last decades the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) in the medical field has been the subject of extensive research, as an affordable, harmless and non-invasive technology. In some specific applications, such as body composition assessment where EBI has proven a good degree of effectiveness and reliability, the use of textile electrodes and measurement garments have shown good performance and reproducible results. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a modality of EBI that can benefit from the implementation and use of wearable sensors. ICG is based on continuous impedance measurements of a longitudinal segment across the thorax taken at a single frequency. The need for a specific electrode placement on the thorax and neck can be easily ensured with the use of a garment with embedded textile electrodes, also known as “textrodes.” The first step towards the implementation of garment-based ICG is to determine the quality of ICG measurements with textile sensors to allow estimation of fundamental ICG parameters. In this work, the measurement performance of a 2-belt set with incorporated textrodes for thorax and neck is compared against ICG measurements obtained with Ag/AgCl electrodes. The analysis is based on the quality of the fundamental ICG signals (ΔZ, dZ/dt and ECG), systolic time intervals and other ICG parameters. The results indicate the feasibility of using textrodes for ICG measurements with consistent measurements and relatively low data dispersion. Thus, enabling the development of measuring garments for ICG measurements.
Activities around applications of Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) have proliferated in the past decade significantly. Most of these activities have been focused in the analysis of the EBIS measurements, which eventually might enable novel applications. In Body Composition Assessment (BCA), the most common analysis approach currently used in EBIS is based on the Cole function, which most often requires curve fitting. One of the most implemented approaches for obtaining the Cole parameters is performed in the impedance plane through the geometrical properties that the Cole function exhibit in such domain as depressed semi-circle. To fit the measured impedance data to a semi-circle in the impedance plane, obtaining the Cole parameters in an indirect and sequential manner has several drawbacks. Applying a Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) iterative fitting on the spectroscopy measurement, obtains the Cole parameters considering the frequency information contained in the measurement. In this work, from experimental total right side EBIS measurements, the BCA parameters have been obtained to assess the amount and distribution of whole body fluids. The values for the BCA parameters have been obtained using values for the Cole parameters estimated with both approaches: circular fitting on the impedance plane and NLLS impedance-only fitting. The comparison of the values obtained for the BCA parameters with both methods confirms that the NLLS impedance-only is an effective alternative as Cole parameter estimation method in BCA from EBIS measurements. Using the modulus of the Cole function as the model for the fitting would eliminate the need for performing phase detection in the acquisition process, simplifying the hardware specifications of the measurement instrumentation when implementing a bioimpedance spectrometer.