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Open access

C. Li, F. Jiang, S. Ju, J. Peng, Y. Wei and L. Zhang

Abstract

Experiments were performed in an interdigital micromixer with 30 microchannels (40 μm width of each channel) to separate In3+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ from sulfate solutions using Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant. The effects of pH, extractant concentration and flow rate on the extraction efficiency and flow rate on mass transfer coefficient of In3+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ were investigated. At a phase flow rate of 7.0 mL/min and initial solution pH of 0.423, the extraction efficiency of In3+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ was 99.29%, 3.43% and 2.54%, respectively and mass transfer coefficient of In3+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ was 144.307 s−1, 1.018 s−1 and 0.750 s−1. Then, the loaded organic phase was stripped in an interdigital micromixer. At a phase flow rate of 9.0 mL/min and HCl concentration of 160 g/L, stripping efficiency of In3+ was 98.92% and mass transfer coefficient of In3+ was 169.808 s−1, while concentration of Fe3+ and Zn2+ was lower than 0.005 g/L with good separation of In3+ from Fe3+ and Zn2+.

Open access

W.B. Jiang, Q.P. Kong, L.B. Magalas and Q.F. Fang

Abstract

The internal friction of magnesium single crystals, bicrystals and polycrystals has been studied between room temperature and 450°C. There is no internal friction peak in the single crystals, but a prominent relaxation peak appears at around 160°C in polycrystals. The activation energy of the peak is 1.0 eV, which is consistent with the grain boundary self-diffusion energy of Mg. Therefore, the peak in polycrystals can be attributed to grain boundary relaxation. For the three studied bicrystals, the grain boundary peak temperatures and activation energies are higher than that of polycrystals, while the peak heights are much lower. The difference between the internal friction peaks in bicrystals and polycrystals is possibly caused by the difference in the concentrations of segregated impurities in grain boundaries.

Open access

Zenon Chaczko, Shahrzad Aslanzadeh, Frank Jiang and Ryszard Klempous

Abstract

This paper presents the concepts and explores issues related to the 3 Time Zones (3TZ) model of software development in global workspace environment. The 3TZ model itself seeks to take advantages of differences in time zones between places around the world. By engaging software development teams in different regions separated by 8 hours each, it is possible for their combined working hours to cover the whole 24 hours period. Thus, while they each work their normal 8 hour days, together they are able to achieve in 1 day what a single team would achieve in 3 days. They are able to achieve this by passing on their work from one team to the next as one finishes their workday and the next team starts their workday. The 3TZ model of software development revolves around the employment of a software development team distributed in at least 3 different locations around the world in 3 different time zones. If work was passed on from one team to the next and adjacent teams were separated by 8 hours, then 24 hours continuous collaborative software development could be achieved. Though this poses many challenges, when dealt with there is great potential for software to be developed much faster than is possible for a single, collocated development team. In the global economy, we have seen a decrease in the barriers towards communication across the globe along with an increase of service availability to support this communication. Software development is one of the disciplines that is capable of effectively utilizing and benefiting from global collaboration prospect lent by ever increasing capability of information and communication technology. 24 hours continuous development is ideal for application towards tasks that have hard deadlines or require work completed as soon as possible. This article will mainly focus on introducing 24/7 global models that can be applied in cloud environment used in three different time zones.

Open access

F. Jing, J. Cui, R. Liu, L. Liu, P. Jiang and Z. Wang

Abstract

In the present study, a sandwich ELISA based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) was developed for detection of circulating antigens (CAg) in sere of mice experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis. The IgY-sandwich ELISA assay involved the use of chicken antibody IgY against excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae as a capture antibody and mouse polyclonal antibody IgG to ES antigens as a detecting antibody. This method was able to detect as little as 3 ng/ml of ES antigens added to normal mouse serum. A group of sixteen mice was orally inoculated with 500 T. spiralis muscle larvae per animal. The serum samples from the infected mice were taken during 1–35 days post-infection (dpi). The CAg was detectable as early as 8 dpi in the sera of infected mice. The level of CAg increased dramatically during 13–15 dpi and reached a peak at 22 dpi and remained a plateau for 3 days, then declined gradually. Another peak of CAg occurred at 31 dpi. The anti-Trichinella antibodies was first detected in 14.3 % of the infected mice at 2 weeks post-infection (wpi), and reached a peak positive rate of 100 % at 5 wpi. Moreover, the infected mice were treated with abendazole at 5 wpi and the serum CAg levels increased significantly during 2–6 days posttreatment (dpt) and then declined rapidly during 8–14 dpt. By 42 dpt, the CAg levels decreased to the undetected level, but the detection rate of antibodies was still 100 %. The IgY-sandwich ELISA appears to be a sensitive for detection of antigenemia of T. spiralis and valuable to judge the efficacy of chemotherapy in trichinellosis.

Open access

X.F. Yang, J.F. Qin, L. Wang, K.G. Gao, C.T. Zheng, L. Huang and Z.Y. Jiang

Abstract

Glutamine plays an important role in neonatal growth and health. It is unknown whether supplementing the lactating sows’ diet with glutamine will benefit the growth performance and intestinal development of suckling piglets through increasing content of milk glutamine. A total of 24 lactating sows (Large White) were fed diets supplemented with/without 1% glutamine throughout the 21-d lactation. Feed intake of the sows was recorded, blood and milk samples were collected. Piglets were weighed at birth and weaning, one piglet randomly selected from each litter was sacrificed for morphological analysis of the small intestine. Average daily feed intake of the sows did not differ between control and glutamine groups. Concentrations of total protein and urea nitrogen in sows’ serum was increased by glutamine at d 14 of lactation (P<0.05). Contents of glutamine in both plasma and milk of sows were significantly increased by glutamine supplementation throughout lactation (P<0.01). Concentrations of proline, citrulline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and arginine in sows’ plasma were increased by glutamine supplementation (all P<0.05). Milk yield was increased by glutamine supplementation at d 14 and 21 of lactation (P<0.05). Supplementing the lactating sows’ diet with glutamine increased average daily gain (P=0.006), weaning weight (P=0.032), as well as villous height and ratio of villous height:crypt depth in duodenum of the suckling piglets (both P<0.05). Collectively, supplementing lactating sows’ diet with 1% glutamine significantly improved the growth performance of suckling piglets through elevating milk yield and glutamine content in the milk.

Open access

X. F. Yang, Z. Y. Jiang, Z. M. Tian, Y. Q. Qiu, L. Wang, K. G. Gao, Y. J. Hu and X. Y. Ma

Abstract

The uneven development of adipose tissues reflects a differential occurrence of biological events in vivo while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, the in vivo inflammatory status of an inbred obese porcine model, Lantang pig, was assessed, aiming to provide evidence for obesity biology. Compared with genetically lean pigs (crossbred, Duroc × Landrace × Large White), Lantang pigs exhibited a larger amount of ultra large adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue accompanied with higher expression of macrophage/monocytes markers and pro-inflammatory genes (TLR4, CD14, CD11β, MCP1, TNFα, IL1β and IL6) and lower expression of cellular antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, 2 and 3). Plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were also higher in Lantang pigs than in lean pigs. Among adipose tissues of Lantang pigs, the subcutaneous tissue had the most abundant expression of inflammation related genes (TLR4, CD14, TNFα and IL6) and the lowest level of cellular antioxidant genes (SOD 1 and 2), while the perirenal adipose tissue had opposite profile. Significant activation of p38 MAPK pathway was indicated by increased phosphorylation of p38 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Lantang pigs. Collectively, the bacteria-derived LPS induced inflammation-associated oxidative stress indeed exists in adipose tissues of Lantang pig, and the differential expressions of inflammatory and antioxidant genes, to some extent, account for the uneven development of the adipose tissue within bodies.

Open access

X. J. Xi, X. B. Jiang, D. Li, L. Q. Guo, J. F. Zhang, Z. Z. Wei and B. L. Li

Abstract

Induction of 2n pollen is a required technique for cultivating polyploid via sexual polyploidy. Orthogonal design or Taguchi Design was applied to select the best treatment process of 2n pollen induction in Populus × popularis from different levels of the meiosis stage of male flower buds, colchicine concentration, times of injection, and interval between injections. Flow cytometry and chromosome counting were used to identify the triploids from the offspring of P. × euramericana. (Dode) Guinier pollinated with induced pollen of P. × popularis. The results showed that high 2n pollen rate can be achieved by selecting the flower buds during diakinesis stage in meiosis, and then injecting 0.6% colchicine 4 times with 2 hours interval. The 2n pollen rate reached 62.10% by this process, and two triploids were obtained, which indicates that it is possible for cultivating triploids via 2n pollen induction by colchicine treatment in poplar. Results and protocol related to 2n pollen induction, polyploid identification and effect of 2n pollen in this study might be applicable in polyploidy breeding in section Aigeiros and Tacamahaca of poplar.

Open access

F Lv, G Qian, W You, H Lin, XF Wang, GS Qiu, YS Jiang, LX Pang, YM Kang, BF Jia, JZ Xu and Y Yu

Abstract

Thyroid cancer is a very common form of endocrine system malignancy. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid cancer remains poorly understood. Studies of oncocytic tumors have led to a hypothesis which proposes that defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OX- PHOS) may result in a compensatory increase in mitochondrial replication and gene expression. As a result, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation analysis has become a useful tool to explore the molecular basis of this disease. Among these mutations, mitochondrial transfer RNAs (mttRNAs) are the hot spots for pathogenic mutations associated with thyroid cancer. However, due to its high mutation rate, the role of mt-tRNA variants in thyroid cancer is still controversial. To address this problem, in this study, we reassessed seven reported mt-tRNA variants: tRNAAsp G7521A, tRNAArg T10411C and T10463C, tRNALeu(CUN) A12308G, tRNAIle G4292C and C4312T, and tRNAAla T5655C, in clinical manifestations of thyroid cancer. We first performed the phylogenetic conservation analysis for these variants; moreover, we used a bioinformatic tool to compare the minimum free energy (G) of mt-tRNA with and without mutations. Most strikingly, none of these variants caused the significant change of the G between the wild-type and the mutant form, suggesting that they may not play an important roles in thyroid cancer. In addition, we screened the frequency of the “pathogenic” A12308G alternation in 300 patients with thyroid cancer and 200 healthy controls. We found that there were five patients and three control subjects carrying this variant. It seemed that the A12308G variant may be a common polymorphism in the human population. Taken together, our study indicated that variants in mt-tRNA genes may not play active roles in patients with thyroid cancer.

Open access

Abdelfattah A. Zalat, Leszek Marks, Fabian Welc, Alaa Salem, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Zhongyuan Chen, Aleksandra Majecka, Marcin Szymanek, Marta Chodyka, Anna Tołoczko-Pasek, Qianli Sun, Xiaoshuang Zhao and Jun Jiang

Abstract

This study evaluates changes in the environmental and climatic conditions in the Faiyum Oasis during the Holocene based on diatom analyses of the sediment FA-1 core from the southern seashore of the Qarun Lake. The studied FA-1 core was 26 m long and covered the time span ca. 9.000 cal. yrs BP. Diatom taxa were abundant and moderately to well-preserved throughout the core sediments. Planktonic taxa were most abundant than the benthic and epiphytic forms, which were very rare and sparsely distributed. The most dominant planktonic genera were Aulacoseira and Stephanodiscus followed by frequently distribution of Cyclostephanos and Cyclotella species. The stratigraphic distribution patterns of the recorded diatoms through the Holocene sediments explained five ecological diatom groups. These groups represent distinctive environmental conditions, which were mainly related to climatic changes through the early and middle Holocene, in addition to anthropogenic activity during the late Holocene. Comparison of diatom assemblages in the studied sediment core suggests that considerable changes occurred in water level as well as salinity. There were several high stands of the freshwater lake level during humid, warmer-wet climatic phases marked by dominance of planktonic, oligohalobous and alkaliphilous diatoms alternated with lowering of the lake level and slight increases in salinity and alkalinity during warm arid conditions evident by prevalence of brackish water diatoms.