The present study aims to supplement anatomical data about the cranial skeleton and describe some cranial modifications of the common hoopoe, Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758, by using several techniques. The common hoopoe has small skull and characterized by presence of air space (pneumatization) within their bones. The degree of pneumatization increased especially within the temporal region. The skull of the common hoopoe possesses different types of kinetic hinges; one hinge locates between frontal and nasal region (frontonasal hinge) allows depression/elevation of upper beak relative to brain case. The other one exhibits between the upper beak and jugal bar (maxilla-jugal hinge). The skull of the common hoopoe characterizes by presence of powerful jaw ligamentous system. One of these ligaments exhibits ossification (Lig. Jugomandibularis medialis). In addition, a long mandibular symphysis observes between the two rami of the anterior third of the lower beak. This mandibular symphysis seems longer in the dorsal surface than the ventral one form ventral gap between the two rami of mandible. These modifications of the cranial skeleton of common hoopoe and jaw ligaments consider features of adaptation for probe mechanism, as well as exhibit its phylogenetic relationship with other avian species.
S. M. Kamel, M. A. M. Osman, M. F. Mahmoud, El-S. I. Haggag, A. R. Aziz and M. A. Shebl
The leafcutting bee, Megachile minutissima Radoszkowski, 1876, is a valuable pollinator of alfalfa grown for seed production in Egypt. In order to control adult emergence of M. minutissima to be synchronized with the expected changes in flowering times of alfalfa crop, breaking the prepupal diapause to initiate the subsequent developmental stages of this insect pollinator is necessary. Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the influence of incubation temperature at 30 ± 0.4 °C after different intervals of cold storage at 10 ± 0. 4 °C on loose bee cells containing diapaused prepupae, which were obtained during the previous season from the successful nesting straws of the artificial nests. Results indicated that the shortest incubation time required for breaking prepupal diapause was about 12 and 19 days to reach the pupal and adult stages, respectively. The percentage of emerged adults was about 60 % at 152 days cold store, and gradually decreased with the increase of cold storage periods in 2009. Meanwhile, the percentage of emerged adults ranged between 40–60 % at all cold storage periods in 2010. Moreover, the results indicated that the optimal period of cold storage at 10 ± 0.4 °C for diapaused prepupae in their loose cells should be between 146 to 153 days, where the maximum rate of adult emergence was occurred. The maximum rate of newly emerged males and females of M. minutissima was recorded at 10 % and 26 % in April 26, 2009 and 30 % and 20 % in May 4, 2010, respectively. However, the minimum rate of adult emergence was occurred in August, September and October months.