Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were described by Friedenstein in the 1970s as being a group of bone marrow non-hematopoietic cells that are the source of fibroblasts. Since then, knowledge about the therapeutic potential of MSCs has significantly increased. MSCs are currently used for the treatment of many diseases, both in adults and children. MSCs are used successfully in the case of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic diseases, diabetes mellitus type 1, gastroenterological and neurological diseases. Moreover, treatment of such organ disorders as damage or hypoxia through application of MSC therapy has shown to be satisfactory. In addition, there are some types of congenital disorders, including osteogenesis imperfecta and Spinal Muscular Atrophy, that may be treated with cellular therapy. Most studies showed no other adverse effects than fever. Our study is an analysis that particularly focuses on the registered trials and results of MSCs application to under 18 patients with acute, chronic, recurrent, resistance and corticosteroids types of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). Stem cells currently play an important role in the treatment of many diseases. Long-term studies conducted on animals have shown that cell therapy is both effective and safe. The number of indications for use of these cells in the course of treatment of people is constantly increasing. The results of subsequent studies provide important data justifying the application of MSCs in the course of treatment of many diseases whose treatment is ineffective when utilizing other approaches.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by millions of people worldwide to neutralize pain that is of different origin, as well as to treat fever and inflammation. However, NSAIDs misuse/overuse can induce many adverse effects and some potentially serious complications. The aim of the our study was to ascertain young people’s knowledge about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The research tool was a questionnaire. This study was carried out among students of the Medical University in Lublin, and it involved 236 persons of an average age of 20 years. The questions were intended to assess the frequency of NSAIDs use and the general knowledge that is held with respect to them. The results of this work show that more than 77% of the respondents confirmed that they use NSAIDs. Our results revealed no statistical correlation between the place of living or origin and the use of this drug. Hence, it can be said that while young adults quite often use NSAIDs, their knowledge about the dangers associated with the use of NSAIDs is low. Therefore, it is necessary to more intensively disseminate knowledge on the potential adverse effects of NSAID utilization.
Energy drinks (ED), containing caffeine, taurine and another substances, are one of the more frequently used legal stimulants. Still, because these can endanger consumers’ health, it is thought that their marketing should be legally controlled.
In our study, we analyzed the frequency of energy drink consumption, as well as the knowledge held about these drinks among medicine and dentistry students of the Medical University of Lublin. In the study, 131 students participated, and the study was done in the form of a survey. The results of this indicate that 81 students (61.83%) declared a daily consumption, and most respondents (78.48%) stated at least a one time consumption of 250 to 749 ml of energy drink. What is more, 26.25% of respondents combined ED with other substances, most frequently with coffee and alcohol. Regarding knowledge of ED effects, contents and side effects, more males than females actively sought and held this information. Furthermore, more than half of all respondents believed that the availability of EDs in Poland should be limited.
Our study showed that the awareness of the effects and mechanisms of action of EDs, among the questioned students is relatively high. Nevertheless, they frequently consume EDs and combine these with other stimulants.
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are a nonparenchymal population of liver cells. In normal conditions, they store vitamin A, control the turnover of the extracellular matrix, and regulate the contractility of the sinusoids. Acute and chronic damage such as that brought about by alcohol activates the stellate cells and they are then responsible for the liver's inflammatory fibrotic response. Hence, alcohol consumption leads to hepatitis, steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver by way of different mechanisms depending on effect upon the nonparenchymal cells of the liver.
The aim of our study was to assess the histological changes in the liver of rats after chronic alcohol consumption. In our work, we evaluated the intensity of liver fibrosis and the number of Kupffer cells and active hepatic stellate cells present within a test population. In the experiment, we used 10 Wistar rats of 250 gram weight. The animals were placed within one of two groups: A (experimental) and C (control). Group A received alcohol for 4 weeks, while group C received just water. The rats of both groups were decapitated 24 hours after the end of the experiment. The samples of liver were then evaluated after H&E, Masson’s trichrome staining and an immunohistochemical reaction to desmin (a marker of quiescent HSC) and α-smooth muscle actin (marker of active HSC) antibody. In our work, we observed intensive fibrosis in the portal spaces and perivenular areas in group A samples. Moreover, Kupffer cells and stellate cells with positive α-SMA expression were more numerous in group A than in the group C, and these correlate with the area of intensive fibrosis. The expression of desmin in the HSC was seen in both groups to a similar level.
Conclusion: Chronic alcohol consumption activates the transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells into the positive α-SMA myofibroblast-like cells which are responsible for fibrogenesis.
Energy drinks (ED) are beverages containing caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal extracts, and sugar or sweeteners. They are marketed as capable of improving stamina, athletic performance and concentration, moreover, as serving as a source of energy. Still, there are very few papers describing the impact of ED on cell biology – including cell apoptosis within tissues. Therefore, in our study, we assessed the symptoms of rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis after 8 weeks consumption of ED.
For the research, we used male Wistar rats divided into 2 groups (experimental and control). The experimental animals received ED at a dose average of 0.190 ml per g of body weight per day for a period of 8 weeks. The animals of the control group received just water and food without limitation. After 8 weeks, the rats were decapitated; hearts and other organs were collected. After embedding in paraffin blocks, 5μm thick tissue slides were prepared and stained according to standard hematoxylin and eosine (H&E) staining protocol. Additional slides were stained by immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed against either caspaze-3 or p53 protein.
Our results showed that the expression of caspase 3 and p53 protein varied depending on the group of rats. The expression of caspase 3 observed in cardiomyocytes was much more intense in the experimental group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the immunoprecipitation of p53 protein was observed more frequently in the cardiomyocytes nuclei of the experimental group than in the control group.
Obtained results suggest that chronic use of ED induces intracellular disorders and apoptosis in consumer cardiomyocytes.
Bee pollen is a natural resource - pollen collected by bees and stored in the beehive with various bee enzymes added as it is a mixture of plants pollen and bee saliva. It is rich source of various nutrients, among them exogenous amino acids. Therefore, it can be a good and natural dietary supplement. New possibilities for bee pollen usage arise every day, yet it can also be a threat. Although bee pollen can act as an immunostimulant and anti-allergic agent, it is also and maybe even primarily allergic or cross-reactive with many allergens. A number of bee pollen allergy cases was described worldwide. A caution is therefore needed before ingestion or any other form of administration, especially in case of children or individuals with atopic predispositions. Anti-allergic attributes and immunostimmulation ability still need further research.
The therapeutic effects of the immunosuppressive agent, cladribine, have been demonstrated by its toxicity to cells. However, its effects on healthy cells of the body is poorly understood. The aim of study was, hence, to, firstly, evaluate the morphology of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas after the administration of cladribine according to the "leukemic" schema, and, secondly, to assess its impact on the intensity of apoptosis. The experiment was carried out on female Wistar rats which were placed within the control group KA, and the experimental groups: A and A-bis. In the experimental groups, Cladribine was administered according to the cycle used to treat human hairy cell leukemia. In group A, the material was taken 24 hours after administration of the last dose of the drug, while in group A-bis, this was done after a 4 weeks break. The reaction was assessed to be average in 80% of all cells in group A, and in 64% of all acinar cells in group KA, while in group A-bis, the majority of the exocrine cells demonstrated a lack of immunohistochemical response (72%). Moreover, most endocrine cells (60%) in group A-bis revealed a strong reaction, while in Group A, the corresponding figure is a little over 34%. A comparison of the severity of the caspase 3 expression in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas showed significant differentiation results between the group KA and group A-bis, and between group A and A-bis (p < 0.0001). In can be concluded that endocrine cells are more sensitive to cladribine than are exocrine cells.
The treatment of neoplastic and neurodegenerative diseases is still difficult. This because the cytostatic drugs have adverse effects on healthy organs. Among the drugs that have been investigated in the therapy of cancers and multiple sclerosis are the purine analogues. The aim of our study was the evaluation of the effect of cladribine on the process of autophagy in the healthy pancreas via two dosage models. The experiment was conducted on female Wistar rats which were placed within the experimental and control groups of two dosage models: model (A) - cladribine being administered in a daily dose of 0.1 mg/kg by weight for 7 days, and model (B) - cladribine being administered in a daily dose of 0.07 mg/kg by weight in 3 cycles of 6 days with 5 weeks break. A-bis and B-bis groups were included within, respectively, groups A and B. Here, decapitation occurred after 4 weeks break in drug administration. In our work, autophagy was investigated via the expression of the LC3B protein (Light Chain 3B protein). The comparison of the results of many independent trials was built upon the use of the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. Significance was set at p < 0.005. In our results, average LC3B expression was observed in 100% of all cells in the group A, 70% in group B and 60% in group B-bis. We not observed average LC3B expression in the other groups. Moreover, a poor reaction was observed in 55% of all cells in group A-bis. We noted significant relationships between control group and group A, between the control group and group B, and between group A-bis and groups B and B-bis. These results demonstrate that cladribine has led to the induction of autophagy in the pancreatic islet cells.
At the present time, back pain and posture problems affect a growing number of young people. This is probably due to a changing lifestyle which has led to less physical activity. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of pain associated with the spine, as well as to ascertain the relationship of these symptoms with the degree of physical activity among a group of students of the Medical University of Lublin. The research group consisted of 301 students (201 women and 100 men) aged between 19 and 27 years. The survey was performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015.
Based on an anonymous questionnaires, we found that treatment and advice obtained at the faulty posture and/or orthopedic clinic benefited slightly more than 32% of all respondents. In this group, about 20% were women, while among men, it was a little over 12%. Physical therapy to treat back problems was also entered into by about 29% of the respondents, while 5% of students undertook such treatment very frequently. What is more, 89% of all respondents stated they regularly attend physical education classes. Moreover, more than 81% of all students surveyed practiced some sport, in this group - about 51% of the respondents stating so were women, and a little over 29% were men. Although medical students are a group of people with high health issue awareness, they are not deprived of problems related to the musculoskeletal system.
At the present time, consumers are paying more attention to the food items they purchase, and, hence, organic products, more and more, are a popular choice. Furthermore, there is an increased awareness of the ingredients added as fixatives and taste modifiers. Medical students are assumed to have greater health awareness, and to recognize that proper nutrition has a significant impact on the overall physical well-being. Moreover, they are thought to be aware of the chemical composition of consumed foods. The aim of our study was to truly assess the degree of consumer awareness amongst students of the Medical University of Lublin.
The research study consisted of 301 students of the I and II years, the work being performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire. This contained questions regarding their degree of healthy food awareness of retailed food products.
The results of this study revealed that about 44% of the respondents always or often pay attention to the composition of the food products which they buy. Indeed, the highest percentage of all respondents declared that their purchase of food products is guided by the declared (labeled) composition (48.84% of the students coming from urban settings, and 55.81% coming from rural districts). Of note, regarding products labeled organic, from both urban and rural origin, such items were chosen by approximately 50% of the respondents. Finally, only a small percentage of students (about 9% overall) stated that they avoid foods stated to contain preservatives.
In summary, despite the increasing availability of healthy foods, such items are not too often chosen by UM students - Indeed, despite the large biomedical knowledge purportedly held, medical students, in particular, do not avoid foods containing preservatives.