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Open access

Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda and Beata Wojcik


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were described by Friedenstein in the 1970s as being a group of bone marrow non-hematopoietic cells that are the source of fibroblasts. Since then, knowledge about the therapeutic potential of MSCs has significantly increased. MSCs are currently used for the treatment of many diseases, both in adults and children. MSCs are used successfully in the case of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic diseases, diabetes mellitus type 1, gastroenterological and neurological diseases. Moreover, treatment of such organ disorders as damage or hypoxia through application of MSC therapy has shown to be satisfactory. In addition, there are some types of congenital disorders, including osteogenesis imperfecta and Spinal Muscular Atrophy, that may be treated with cellular therapy. Most studies showed no other adverse effects than fever. Our study is an analysis that particularly focuses on the registered trials and results of MSCs application to under 18 patients with acute, chronic, recurrent, resistance and corticosteroids types of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). Stem cells currently play an important role in the treatment of many diseases. Long-term studies conducted on animals have shown that cell therapy is both effective and safe. The number of indications for use of these cells in the course of treatment of people is constantly increasing. The results of subsequent studies provide important data justifying the application of MSCs in the course of treatment of many diseases whose treatment is ineffective when utilizing other approaches.

Open access

Joanna Kołsut, Paulina Borówka, Błażej Marciniak, Ewelina Wójcik, Arkadiusz Wojtasik, Dominik Strapagiel and Jarosław Dastych


Introduction: Colibacillosis – the most common disease of poultry, is caused mainly by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, thus far, no pattern to the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of these bacteria has been established beyond dispute. In this study, genomes of APEC were investigated to ascribe importance and explore the distribution of 16 genes recognised as their virulence factors.

Material and Methods: A total of 14 pathogenic for poultry E. coli strains were isolated, and their DNA was sequenced, assembled de novo, and annotated. Amino acid sequences from these bacteria and an additional 16 freely available APEC amino acid sequences were analysed with the DIFFIND tool to define their virulence factors.

Results: The DIFFIND tool enabled quick, reliable, and convenient assessment of the differences between compared amino acid sequences from bacterial genomes. The presence of 16 protein sequences indicated as pathogenicity factors in poultry resulted in the generation of a heatmap which categorises genomes in terms of the existence and similarity of the analysed protein sequences.

Conclusion: The proposed method of detection of virulence factors using the capabilities of the DIFFIND tool may be useful in the analysis of similarities of E. coli and other sequences deriving from bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in reliable segregation of 30 APEC strains into five main clusters containing various virulence associated genes (VAGs).