On 10-11th March in Warsaw, in the Conference Center Muranow, there was held a scientific conference “Schizophrenia-Forum”, organized for the nineteenth time. In this edition, particular attention was paid to educational aspects, by virtue of the fact that among the participants of the Conference there was a large number of young physicians specializing in psychiatry.
The formula of the two-day Conference based on the experts’ debates in a particular way affected the participants, so the conference was very interesting, it enabled the exchange of experiences and reflections on the problems of schizophrenia. The conference was attended by leading scientists and clinicians, for example: Marek Jarema, Janusz Rybakowski, Andrzej Czernikiewicz, Jerzy Samochowiec, Dominika Dudek and others, which is why it allowed to enrich the knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of psychotic disorders and good presentation of mature clinical thinking. The organizer of the Conference was the Foundation III Department of Psychiatry, “Syntonia” and the guest of honor was Dr. Peter Falkai - Head of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. The lecture by Professor Falkaia entitled Schizophrenia treatment guidelines, at a plenary lecture, was presented in English, translated simultaneously, and was divided into parts: the characteristics of schizophrenia, guidelines for pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia, pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - states of acute pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia - long-term treatment, side effects of long-term pharmacotherapy and conclusions. After a two-day Conference the hugely popular workshop sessions took place. They were addressed to physicians during specialization. All workshop sessions were very popular, as well as the entire conference, which became a forum for the exchange of information, ideas and experiences, sometimes intriguing, inspiring and innovative but never blank. At the end of the Conference the certificates were distributed and there was the opportunity for guests - visiting the permanent exhibition “1000 years of history of Polish Jews,” Polin, located at the Conference Centre Muranow. XIX Conference on Schizophrenia Forum 2016 was an interesting event cognitively and it maintained a high level of scientific and substantive jurisdiction important events in Polish psychiatry.
This article is a case study of a 28-year-old patient diagnosed with F23. The report is preceded by an extensive literature review describing the situation of the mentally ill, in which psychiatry intermingles with spirituality and the sacrum.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between religion/spirituality and schizophrenia as well as to draw attention to the complex problem of differential diagnosis of religious and spiritual problems. When is psychiatric treatment enough and when is intervention of a priest really essential?
The authors discuss the problem of mental disorders in connection with religion and spirituality in the clinical context. The article shows that it is very important that the processes of diagnosis and treatment take into account the patients’ individual traits, beliefs, values and spirituality.
This work basing on a study of medical records is a story of a young patient, repeatedly hospitalized with various diagnoses, in whom the psychiatric symptoms significantly decreased after waking from coma, resulting from an unfortunate accident.
There are presented subsequent stages of treatment and hospitalizations and the analysis of the problem if the restart is possible in terms of mental state, in a patient who for years had experienced omental-delusive experiences of high severity and anxiety, leading to several suicidal attempts with serious consequences.
The discussion also describes the issue of double diagnosis and the criteria for amphetamine-induced psychosis.
Can schizophrenia be cured and its symptoms reset ?
Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.
Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.
Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.
Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.
Introduction: Dissociative identity disorder, also known as multiple personality disorder, involves simultaneous manifestation of multiple alternative personalities in one human body. The disorder is still a puzzle to contemporary researchers. In comparison to the United States, where the detection rate of this disorder is growing, in Poland, it is still a niche issue, unknown to many scientists and clinicians. Rather alarmingly, this situation has remained the same for many years now.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to draw attention to the adaptive character of dissociative identity disorder as a defense mechanism in children who have experienced extremely traumatic events in early childhood. The work also sets itself the task of disseminating knowledge about multiple personality disorder in the Polish scientific community, with the hope of encouraging wider research in this area in Poland.
Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska) databases for the years 1960–2018. The following search terms were used: multiple personality, dissociative identity disorder, dissociative identity disorder and children. On the basis of a meta-analysis of the available literature, we offer a general characterization of the disorder, describe its symptomatology, present several theories of its etiology and conclude it through the prism of its adaptive function.
Results and Discussion: From the analysis of the gather data, we can conclude that multiple personality disorder can be a broad variant of the child's defense mechanisms against extreme, traumatic events from childhood, which they try to cope with by creating alter personalities. Abused children create other representations of the Self to be able to rid themselves of suffering, a process that is necessary for them to survive and further develop mentally and physically.
Conclusions: There is no doubt that Polish research on this disorder is much needed. It could provide more information on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple personality. In addition, a better understanding of the issue might bring us closer to the understanding of how the human mind works.
Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a supporting agent in the pharmacotherapy of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, substantially accelerates mood stabilization in patients. In turn, memantine, known for its procognitive effect, not only has antimanic and normothymic properties, but also boosts the neuroprotective action of traditional lithium therapy.
In view of the latest opinions, the subtle pro-inflammatory process is typical for the pathophysiology of bipolar disease. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (a popular analgesic, antipyretic and antiphlogistic agent) may be useful in BD therapy. This is because that, via its effect upon cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), ASA modulates leukocyte recruitment in neuro-inflammation.
Apart from the above-mentioned medications, this article introduces the results of recent investigations of ketamine, modafinil and tamoxifen, including their receptor mechanisms, as well as certain genetic aspects or elements of their pharmacodynamics, for use in BD therapy. We put forward that, possibly, more insightful cognition of these drugs will allow significant enrichment in the range of pharmacotherapy for BD in the near future.
Does better insight associated with the process of recovery mean a stronger sense of mental illness stigma? This article presents the relationship between a multidimensional construct, which is the insight and the phenomena of stigma and self-stigma of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. It is well known that the term insight contains: a sense of illness, the patient's attitude to its symptoms, explanation of the causes of the illness, attitude to the rationale of treatment and awareness of the risk of relapse. On the other hand, self-stigma occurs when the patient internalizes and refers to himself/herselfnegative and stigmatizing social attitudes, conditioned by the presence of conventionalbeliefs, strengthened by the media, and this weakens the process of recovery.
How much does good insight strengthen the patient on the way to fuller social functioning, and how much does it imprint stigma of mental illness and weaken its positionin society? The authors of the paper are discussing the subject of insight and stigma from the patient's perspective, over the patient’s attitude towards the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the process of recovery and the aspect of hope - important in recovery. These study of construct insight shows that the relationship insight-recovery-stigma is a multi-dimensional plane, dependent on various factors, that needs constant deepening and complementing with further research.
The prevalence of schizophrenia in a population is about 1%. Many efforts are constantly made to find the cause of this mental illness. Authors of this article provide groups of factors influencing the development of the disease. Among these factors, genetics seems to be an interesting and reasonable trend of exploration. GWAS research studies allow not only determining the point mutations in the genome, but also try to give an answer to the question about the biological mechanisms of disease. A microRNA MIR137, which is involved in neurogenesis and maturation of neurons may be an example. However, the genetic component may not always be sufficient to trigger symptoms. Definitely, a large group of environmental factors has an important role. Schizophrenia is a complex disease in which many genes interact with the environment. This article is a presentation of genes and the impact of various external environmental factors, leading to the onset of schizophrenia. Interrelationship between polygenic determinant of disease and the impact of both environmental and social factors in future will certainly become the field of interest for research concerning the etiology and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder and, because of some behavioral characteristics, individuals affected by the disease are known as silent angels. Girls with Rett syndrome perform stereotyped movements, they have learning difficulties, their reaction time is prolonged, and they seem alienated in the environment. These children require constant pediatric, neurological and orthopedic care. In the treatment of Rett syndrome physical therapy, music therapy, hydrotherapy, hippotherapy, behavioral methods, speech therapy and diet, are also used. In turn, psychological therapy of the syndrome is based on the sensory integration method, using two or more senses simultaneously. In 80% of cases, the syndrome is related to mutations of the MECP2 gene, located on chromosome X. The pathogenesis of Rett syndrome is caused by the occurrence of a non-functional MeCP2 protein, which is a transcription factor of many genes, i.e. Bdnf, mef2c, Sgk1, Uqcrc1. Abnormal expression of these genes reveals a characteristic disease phenotype. Clinical symptoms relate mainly to the nervous, respiratory, skeletal and gastrointestinal systems. Currently causal treatment is not possible. However, researchers are developing methods by which, perhaps in the near future, it will be possible to eliminate the mutations in the MECP2 gene, and this will give a chance to the patient for normal functioning.
The paper presents the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, genetic, clinical, pharmacological aspects and other forms of Rett syndrome treatment.
The basic purpose of this article is to compare how people with low and high self-esteem rated particular values. Additionally, the authors look at gender differences concerning the attitudes toward certain values.
The study involved 268 individuals aged 19-24 (M= 21.71, SD= 1.54). The participants were surveyed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The results were considered significant at p<0.05. The findings demonstrated that people with lower self-esteem had higher opinion of values like Conformity, Pleasure, and Comfortable Life as well as some Instrumental Values (Self-Control and Politeness), when compared against the individuals with higher self-esteem. On the other hand, they were found to value Courage. There were no differences concerning the way individuals with high and low self-esteem rated Social Recognition, A Sense of Accomplishment and Self-Respect.
Also, the authors noticed that men were more likely to appreciate Hedonistic and Intellectual values, while women attached greater significance to Relational values. There were no gender differences concerning the rating of Aesthetic and Subjective values.