Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the local innate immune response to the swine influenza virus (SIV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection in pigs. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 37 seven-week-old pigs, divided into four groups: App-infected (n=11), App+SIV-infected (n=11), SIV-infected (n=11), and control (n=4). Lung samples were collected, following euthanasia, on the 2nd and 4th dpi (three piglets per inoculated group) and on the 10th dpi (remaining inoculated and control pigs). Lung concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-α, and IFN-γ were analysed with the use of commercial porcine cytokine ELISA kits. Results: Lung concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-α, and IFN-γ were induced in SIV-infected and App+SIV-infected pigs. In the lung tissue of App-infected pigs, only concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ were elevated. Additionally, in App+SIV-infected pigs, significantly greater concentrations of IL-1β, IL-8, and IFN-α were found when compared with pigs infected with either SIV or App alone. In each tested group, the lung concentration of IL-10 remained unchanged during the entire study. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the experimental infection of pigs with SIV or App alone and co-infection with both pathogens induced a local lung inflammatory response. However, the local cytokine response was considerably higher in co-infected pigs compared to singleinfected pigs
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Polish farrow-to-finish pig herds.
Material and Methods: Serum samples collected from 5,952 pigs, from 145 farrow-to-finish herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against H1N1, H1N1pdm09, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV subtypes using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Samples with HI titres equal or higher than 20 were considered positive.
Results: HI antibodies to at least one of the analysed SIV subtypes were detected in 129 (89%) herds and in 2,263 (38%) serum samples. Antibodies to multiple SIV subtypes were detected in 104 (71.7%) herds and in 996 (16.7%) serum samples. Concerning the seroprevalence rate, according to age category, the highest prevalence of the antibodies was detected in weaners, with regard to the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, and in sows, with regard to the H1N1pdm09. The lowest seroprevalence for all evaluated SIV subtypes was detected in finishers.
Conclusion: The study indicates that antibodies against single and multiple SIV subtypes are circulating in Polish farrow-to-finish herds and highlights the importance of conducting a molecular surveillance programme in future studies.
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak and Anna Łukomska
The study evaluated the patterns of local innate immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) alone or co-infected with swine influenza virus (SIV).
Material and Methods
The study was performed on 26 seven-week-old pigs in three groups: PRRSV-infected (n = 11), PRRSV and SIV-infected (n = 11), and control (n = 4). BALF was collected post euthanasia at 2 and 4 dpi (three piglets per inoculated group) and at 21 dpi (all remaining pigs). Expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA was quantified in BALF cells. PRRSV RNA was quantified in BALF samples using a commercial real-time RT-PCR kit.
The three cytokines IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β presented significant expression changes in all experimental pigs. In PRRSV-infected animals IL-8 also did, but in co-infected subjects IL-6 and IL-10 were the additional upregulated cytokines. The highest number of differentially expressed genes was observed at 4 dpi, and significant differences in cytokine gene expression did not occur between the experimental groups at any other time point. The mean PRRSV load in the BALF of PRRSV-infected pigs was higher than that of co-infected pigs at each time point, having statistical significance only at 4 dpi.
The results of the study indicate that infection with PRRSV alone as well as with SIV interferes with innate and adaptive immune response in the infected host. They also showed that co-infection demonstrates additive effects on IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression levels.
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of administration of therapeutic doses of ceftiofur and tulathromycin on the circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy pigs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on thirty healthy 7- to 10-week-old pigs, assigned to three groups: the TUL group, injected with tulathromycin (n = 10); the CEF group, injected with ceftiofur (n = 10); and the C group, the control with no antibiotic administration (n = 10). Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment with antimicrobials. Lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in the blood were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometry analyses. Results: Following administration of a therapeutic dose of tulathromycin, there were no changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood. In contrast, administration of ceftiofur at the recommended dose decreased the absolute number of CD3+, CD21+, CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+, and double positive CD4CD8 cells. Conclusion: Results from the study indicate that ceftiofur possesses the ability to modulate the immune system in healthy pigs by decreasing lymphocyte subpopulations circulating in blood.
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit and Zygmunt Pejsak
Introduction: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of enrofloxacin on production of selected cytokines by porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Material and Methods: Twenty pigs (10 control and 10 experimental) were used in this research. Pigs from experimental group received enrofloxacin at therapeutic doses. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment with enrofloxacin. PBMCs were incubated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Production of IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α were determined by ELISA.
Results: Administration of enrofloxacin to healthy pigs for 5 d induced a transient reduction of the PBMCs response to LPS in terms of IL-6 and TNF-α secretion. The concentration of IL-6 returned to the day 0 level shortly after treatment, while TNF-α production remained reduced for 10 d after the treatment. The production of IL-10 was not affected by enrofloxacin. The level of IFN-γ was below the detection limit of the tests.
Conclusion: The results indicate that enrofloxacin administered in vivo in therapeutic doses has an immunomodulatory effect through its capacity to inhibit secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α by porcine PBMC stimulated by LPS.
Maciej Kochanowski, Jacek Karamon, Joanna Dąbrowska, Arkadiusz Dors, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors and Tomasz Cencek
Introduction: The aim of study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections in pigs in Poland and evaluate the influence of factors related to the production system on the infection intensity.
Material and Methods: A total of 70 pig farms of all Polish provinces, differing in the herd size and production system, were selected for the study. Fresh faecal samples were collected from all age groups: suckling piglets, weaners, fatteners, and lactating sows. Moreover, data were obtained regarding the size of the herd, the use of paddock and all-in/all-out system, the presence of diarrhoea, and the type of flooring.
Results: Parasite eggs or oocysts were detected in 57 of the 70 examined pig farms. Oesphagostomum spp. eggs were found in the largest number of farms (68.6%). Moreover, coccidia (42.9%), Ascaris suum (28.6%), Trichuris suis (21.4%), and Strongyloides spp. (11.4%) were detected. The highest prevalence of coccidia and Strongyloides spp. was found in suckling piglets, A. suum and T. suis in fatteners, and Oesphagostomum spp. in sows. Higher prevalence of parasites was detected in small farms than in medium and large farms, except the prevalence of coccidia, which was the highest in medium farms. Simultaneous infection with several parasites was more often detected than with one parasite. Odds ratio of parasites occurrence was higher in farms with paddock and litter floor and in farms which do not use all-in/all-out system.
Conclusion: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in pigs in Poland. Moreover, specific distribution of parasites in different age groups and farms of different size was observed. Influence of breeding factors on parasite prevalence was identified.
Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Stasiak, Jarosław Rachubik, Katarzyna Śliżewska and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementation of sows’ and growing pigs’ diets with three newly developed synbiotic and two extant commercial probiotic products on selected immune parameters under field conditions.
Material and Methods
The study was performed on 30 sows and 48 piglets of the Danbred breed. Immune parameters such as concentration and proportion of white blood cells and their subpopulations, immunoglobulins amount in serum, and serum concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were recorded with the use of a haematology analyser and ELISA kits.
No significant differences between treatment groups and controls were found with regard to the immune parameters evaluated except for serum immunoglobulin concentration, which was significantly increased by synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D.
The results of the study indicate that the synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D are worthy of further investigation as promising candidates to improve the immune status of healthy sows and their offspring.