Ewa Zdybel, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Gabriela Główczyńska and Wioletta Drożdż
The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.
Ewa Zdybel, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Mateusz Gertchen and Wioletta Drożdż
In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.
Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Antoni Golachowski, Wioletta Drożdż, Tomasz Boruczkowski, Hanna Boruczkowska and Ewa Zdybel
Selected Properties of Single- and Double-Extruded Potato Starch
The aim of this study was to determine the properties of single- and double-extruded starch. Single-extruded starch was obtained using a single screw extruder at temperatures of 50-60-70°C, 90-100-120°C and 140-150-170°C, whereas double-extruded starch was obtained after grinding each of the three single-extruded starch samples and their re-extrusion at temperatures of 90-100-120°C and 140-150-170°C. The samples were determined for solubility in water and absorption capacity at a temperature of 30 and 80°C. Flow curves of the prepared pastes were plotted. Properties of double-extruded potato starch differed from those of the single-extruded starch. The study shows that the extent and direction of these changes depended on the number of the conducted extrusion processes and on their temperatures. Each successive process of extrusion and the increase in process temperatures resulted in an increased solubility of the preparations and a decrease in their water absorption capacity. Values of the rheological properties of pastes prepared from double-extruded potato starch were lower than those of the pastes produced from single-extruded potato starch.
Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Antoni Golachowski and Ewa Zdybel
The study was aimed on the determination of biodegradation rate of extruded starch carriers, with or without immobilized microorganisms in diversified storage conditions. The research was conducted on potato starch, in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were immobilized. Preparations with and without yeasts were than placed for 84 days in the environments of: light soil, heavy soil, compost, water and activated sludge. After 0, 7, 14, 21, 49 and 84 days of storage the preparations were perfused with water and analyzed. In the recovered samples the following tests were carried out: the force causing fracture, the elongation caused by the mentioned force, the mass and the diameter of the carrier. Due to the degradation the size and the mechanical properties of the samples were decreased. The rate of the degradation was strongly dependent on the environment of the storage. The fastest degradation of the carriers were observed for compost and heavy soil, while the slowest biodegradation was observed for the samples placed in the water environment. The rate of biodegradation was also influenced by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The rate of biodegradation was faster in the samples containing yeast cells, than in the extrudates without the microorganisms.
Wioletta Drożdż, Hanna Boruczkowska, Tomasz Boruczkowski, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk and Ewa Zdybel
Fruit and vegetable processing by-products, undervalued until recently, are rich sources of nutrients. This study investigated properties of extruded corn puffs with addition (5–20%) of blackcurrant or chokeberry pressings. We assessed expansion rate, water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) of the produced extru-dates, the concentration of polyphenols, and antioxidant activity measured by FRAP method and ABTS method. The puffs with addition of chokeberry pressings had higher WSI values, higher phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins content, and higher antioxidant activity than puffcorn with addition of blackcurrant pressings. The corn puffs with addition of fruit pressings contained much higher concentrations of phenolic compounds and were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than pure puffcorn. This confirms the usefulness of addition of such fruit processing by-products in order to manufacture functional food.
Łukasz P. Szwed, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk and Józef Błażewicz
Malt extracts and malt concentrates have a broad range of application in food industry. Those products are obtained by methods similar to brewing worts. The possible reduction of cost can be achieved by application of malt substitutes likewise in brewing industry. As the malt concentrates for food industry do not have to fulfill strict norms for beer production it is possible to produce much cheaper products. It was proved that by means of mathematic optimization it is possible to determine the optimal share of unmalted material for cheap yet effective production of wort.
Wioletta Drożdż, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Ewa Zdybel, Hanna Boruczkowska, Tomasz Boruczkowski and Piotr Regiec
Extrusion cooking technology was applied for obtaining corn extrudates fortified with various level (10-20%) of rosehip pomace powder or apple pomace powder. The total polyphenols content, antioxidant activities (ABTS), organoleptic properties and colour of the extrudates were determined.
Pomace addition increased the level of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity in obtained corn - pomace extrudates, especially in samples enriched with rosehip pomace. Extrudates with 20% of rosehip pomace addition characterized the highest polyphenols content and antioxidant activity. Only the slight decrease of some quality features - shape and size, taste and fl avour, structure and colour of obtained extrudates was observed. Sample with fruit pomace addition showed increasing consistency evaluation. The extruded products by utilising fruit by-products got good evaluation of panelists and can be an excellent source of bioactive compounds in the daily human diet.