The aim of the study was to investigate gender-specific effects of a maternal treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) at multiple maximum therapeutic doses during the last 25 d of pregnancy on the bone tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. BMD and BMC were measured. The geometry, histomorphometry, and mechanical properties of bones were determined. The assessment of selected hormones, cytokines, and amino acids was performed in 35-day-old piglets. DEX administered prenatally inhibited neonatal bone development, as well as bone mineral density, and geometrical and mechanical properties of bones. Neonatal GC-induced bone loss was linked with disturbed somatotropic axis function and decreased serum concentration of GH in male piglets and decreased concentration of IGF-1 in females. Prenatal DEX treatment led to an increase in the concentration of insulin and enhanced activity of bone specific alkaline phosphatase in piglets of both genders.
Ewa Zdybel, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Gabriela Główczyńska and Wioletta Drożdż
The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.
Ewa Zdybel, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Mateusz Gertchen and Wioletta Drożdż
In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski and Małgorzata Kwiecień
Copper (Cu) is required for all basic biochemical and physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary Cu on the histomorphometry of liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats. Male 12-week-old rats were used in a 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate, and other two diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex at 75% and 100% of daily requirement. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses were also performed. There was no effect of Cu supplementation on the liver weight and the plasma and liver Cu concentration. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue showed an increase in the collagen amount and intracellular space in the group supplemented with Cu amino acid. Cu given in the organic form at 100% of daily requirement decreased the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth. In turn, organic copper given at 75% of daily requirement did not influence the intestinal morphology. Dietary Cu given to adult rats as copper sulfate or a glycine complex meeting 100% of the daily requirement appears to be less harmful with regard to intestinal epithelium than when given as a glycine complex at 100% of daily requirement.
Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Antoni Golachowski, Wioletta Drożdż, Tomasz Boruczkowski, Hanna Boruczkowska and Ewa Zdybel
Selected Properties of Single- and Double-Extruded Potato Starch
The aim of this study was to determine the properties of single- and double-extruded starch. Single-extruded starch was obtained using a single screw extruder at temperatures of 50-60-70°C, 90-100-120°C and 140-150-170°C, whereas double-extruded starch was obtained after grinding each of the three single-extruded starch samples and their re-extrusion at temperatures of 90-100-120°C and 140-150-170°C. The samples were determined for solubility in water and absorption capacity at a temperature of 30 and 80°C. Flow curves of the prepared pastes were plotted. Properties of double-extruded potato starch differed from those of the single-extruded starch. The study shows that the extent and direction of these changes depended on the number of the conducted extrusion processes and on their temperatures. Each successive process of extrusion and the increase in process temperatures resulted in an increased solubility of the preparations and a decrease in their water absorption capacity. Values of the rheological properties of pastes prepared from double-extruded potato starch were lower than those of the pastes produced from single-extruded potato starch.
Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Antoni Golachowski and Ewa Zdybel
The study was aimed on the determination of biodegradation rate of extruded starch carriers, with or without immobilized microorganisms in diversified storage conditions. The research was conducted on potato starch, in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were immobilized. Preparations with and without yeasts were than placed for 84 days in the environments of: light soil, heavy soil, compost, water and activated sludge. After 0, 7, 14, 21, 49 and 84 days of storage the preparations were perfused with water and analyzed. In the recovered samples the following tests were carried out: the force causing fracture, the elongation caused by the mentioned force, the mass and the diameter of the carrier. Due to the degradation the size and the mechanical properties of the samples were decreased. The rate of the degradation was strongly dependent on the environment of the storage. The fastest degradation of the carriers were observed for compost and heavy soil, while the slowest biodegradation was observed for the samples placed in the water environment. The rate of biodegradation was also influenced by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The rate of biodegradation was faster in the samples containing yeast cells, than in the extrudates without the microorganisms.
Wioletta Drożdż, Hanna Boruczkowska, Tomasz Boruczkowski, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk and Ewa Zdybel
Fruit and vegetable processing by-products, undervalued until recently, are rich sources of nutrients. This study investigated properties of extruded corn puffs with addition (5–20%) of blackcurrant or chokeberry pressings. We assessed expansion rate, water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) of the produced extru-dates, the concentration of polyphenols, and antioxidant activity measured by FRAP method and ABTS method. The puffs with addition of chokeberry pressings had higher WSI values, higher phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins content, and higher antioxidant activity than puffcorn with addition of blackcurrant pressings. The corn puffs with addition of fruit pressings contained much higher concentrations of phenolic compounds and were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than pure puffcorn. This confirms the usefulness of addition of such fruit processing by-products in order to manufacture functional food.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Andrzej Jakubczak, Iwona Taszkun, Jadwiga Jaworska-Adamu, Andrzej Żmuda, Karol Rycerz and Siemowit Muszyński
The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox) during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.
Wioletta Drożdż, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk, Ewa Zdybel, Hanna Boruczkowska, Tomasz Boruczkowski and Piotr Regiec
Extrusion cooking technology was applied for obtaining corn extrudates fortified with various level (10-20%) of rosehip pomace powder or apple pomace powder. The total polyphenols content, antioxidant activities (ABTS), organoleptic properties and colour of the extrudates were determined.
Pomace addition increased the level of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity in obtained corn - pomace extrudates, especially in samples enriched with rosehip pomace. Extrudates with 20% of rosehip pomace addition characterized the highest polyphenols content and antioxidant activity. Only the slight decrease of some quality features - shape and size, taste and fl avour, structure and colour of obtained extrudates was observed. Sample with fruit pomace addition showed increasing consistency evaluation. The extruded products by utilising fruit by-products got good evaluation of panelists and can be an excellent source of bioactive compounds in the daily human diet.
Łukasz P. Szwed, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk and Józef Błażewicz
Malt extracts and malt concentrates have a broad range of application in food industry. Those products are obtained by methods similar to brewing worts. The possible reduction of cost can be achieved by application of malt substitutes likewise in brewing industry. As the malt concentrates for food industry do not have to fulfill strict norms for beer production it is possible to produce much cheaper products. It was proved that by means of mathematic optimization it is possible to determine the optimal share of unmalted material for cheap yet effective production of wort.