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  • Author: Ewa Szymańska x
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Standard caries diagnostic methods include a visual tactile method, as well as several radiographic methods. The former is a subjective method, while bitewing radiographs and digital radiographs (radiovisiography) enable detection of caries lesions only after 30% of hard dental tissue mineral substances have been lost. The paper presents methods based on electrical and optical phenomena that allow early caries diagnosis. Strengths and weaknesses of each presented method are discussed, basing this on recent literature review. The methods of caries detection generally used in daily clinical practice, combined with alternative methods, make it possible to significantly increase the effectiveness of dental caries diagnosis.



Dental erosion is described as an irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from exposure to non-bacterial acids or chelating substances. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. In the former case, food, drink, as well as the environment might be sources of acids; in the latter, acids flowing into the oral cavity from the stomach and duodenum.

Exogenous dental erosive lesions are localized mainly on the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth of the maxilla, while the endogenous ones can be found on the palatal and masticatory surfaces of the maxilla and the masticatory and buccal surfaces of the mandible.

Reduced saliva secretion, which occurs in a number of diseases, also influences dental erosion, while erosion-causing factors and aggressive tooth brushing immediately after consuming acidic food increases the range and depth of erosion cavities.

The consequence of dental erosion is teeth hypersensitivity, which results from exposure of dental tubules and of the pulp leading to the loss of tooth vitality and decrease in occlusal height.

Treatment of exogenous dental erosion consists in changing nutritional and hygienic habits. In the case of endogenous erosion, however, the therapy should address mainly an underlying disease. Worn teeth surfaces should be restored with conservatory or/and prosthetic methods.

In the context of an increasing prevalence of dental erosion in the population, it is necessary to develop and implement prophylactic measures, including broadly understood health education on the risk factors, preventive activities, and possibilities of diagnosis and therapy.


The static fertilisation experiment conducted in Skierniewice (Central Poland) since 1923 investigates the effect of mineral fertilisation with lime (CaNPK) or without lime (NPK) on the accumulation and release of phosphorus in reference to phosphorus sorption properties in the sandy soil profile. In the case of application of same doses of mineral fertilisers, the content of total phosphorus was higher in NPK than CaNPK soil. Parameters related to sorption capacity and bonding energy from Langmuir and Freundlich model of P sorption were significantly lower in CaNPK than NPK soil profile. This was particularly caused by a lower content of poorly crystallised hydro(oxide) aluminium and iron forms in CaNPK than NPK soil. Higher content of oxide-extractable and bioavailable phosphorus extracted with double lactate solution, dissolved reactive phosphorus in water solution as well as degree of phosphorus saturation in the CaNPK soil profile suggests higher mobility and possibility of occurrence of losses of phosphorus from the profile of limed soil than from acidified soil. Therefore, management of phosphate fertilizers on permanently limed sandy soils requires the optimisation of phosphorus doses to a greater degree corresponding to the actual take-off of the element with crop. An additional finding of the study was evidence of the possibility of re-estimating contents of bioavailable phosphorus and, as a consequence, the degree of phosphorus saturation with Mehlich3 method in strongly acid soil receiving P mineral fertilisers, which can make it difficult to use the test for fertiliser recommendation.


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of agricultural production and selected parameters of farms and data describing the flow of nutrients on the farms. An analysis model was developed for nitrogen management on farms specializing in livestock production. The study was conducted on 20 farms located in 12 municipalities of the Mazowieckie province in central Poland in 2009.2012. The model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in accordance with the backward stepwise method. Based on the regression analysis, the farm parameters that did not determine the dependent variable were eliminated. In the end, there were 10 independent variables included in the model. The model indicates that the efficiency of nitrogen management, expressed in cereal units per 1 kg of nitrogen (CU·kg-1 N), is significantly affected by: crop rotation, the demand for purchasing animal feed, the intensity of livestock production, the nitrogen content of farmyard manure, the nitrogen doses applied in mineral and natural fertilizers, and nitrogen outflow from farms with the sale of plant and animal products. The developed model explains 70% of the variation in the coefficient of efficiency expressed in cereal units per 1 kg N.


This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1). The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral) soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data that indicate elevated N2O emissions from acid soils. Application of urease and nitrification inhibitors alongside nitrogen fertilization can be considered an effective practice of N2O emissions mitigation. Owing to economic reasons the use of nitrogen fertilizers with such additives is currently limited to non-agricultural segments of plant production. Afforestation of the low productive soils offers an attractive opportunity for mitigation of N2O emissions. Whereas N2O emissions from forest soils are considerably lower compared with those from the arable ones, the literature indicates that no N2O emissions mitigation is attained through a conversion of arable land to agroforestry. Considering the current forest area of Poland (24.9% of the total area) and the plans to increase the afforestation rate (to 33% in 2050) the measurable effects of this mitigation practice will only be seen in a long-term perspective.

Besides identifying and excelling the mitigation practices the authors postulate a review of the algorithms employed by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) for the calculation of the GHG emissions. Solutions applied by KOBiZE appear to address mainly the area - or population-related aspects and, to a much lesser degree, the actual N2O production. In this context, the effects of certain N2O emissions mitigation practices might be difficult to be taken into consideration. The application of national statistics of the use of mineral and natural fertilizers to the calculation of the N2O emissions from the arable soils might be questioned given that the N2O emissions are driven by the actual local N dose.


This paper shows the theoretical predictions of the outer-shell ionization effect on the positions of Kα1,2,1,3, and K β2 X-ray lines for some 4d-transition metals (molybdenum and palladium) and 4f rare-earth elements (dysprosium and ytterbium). The ionization energy shifts have been evaluated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method, containing Breit interaction and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections. The presented results are important for obtaining the information about some parameters of plasma generated by different sources, especially by pulsed power machine and short-pulse lasers.


Introduction. Evaluation of the oral health among adult Poles carried out in the framework of the “National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants” study and the research results of clinical centers in Poland indicate that dental caries, periodontal diseases and missing teeth are a major health problem.

Aim. The aim of the study was determining the reasons for reporting to the dentist of 35-54-year-old people, the assessment of dental health and prosthetic needs.

Material and methods. The study comprised 154 patients aged 35-54 reporting in 2015 to the dental clinic in Lublin, which offers treatment financed by the National Health Fund or for a fee. Gender, age, the place of residence and the reason for the reporting to the dentist were analyzed. The place of residence was a village, a town of less than 200 thousand inhabitants or the city of more than 200 thousand residents. The reason for reporting to the dental clinic was a check-up visit, toothache or loss of filling. Dental condition was assessed by calculating the DMF index. The prosthetic state and needs were evaluated. The results were statistically analyzed.

Results. Most patients reporting to the dental examination were women (59.09%) and residents of a big city (70.78%). More than a half of the patients (55.84%) had a check-up appointment, 25.32% appeared due to the loss of filling, and 18.83% - because of a toothache. The frequency of decay in the study group was 100% and the DMF index values ranged from 2.0 to 32.0, assuming an average of 21.18±5.02, and with the age the DMF index values increased. The highest number of decayed and extracted teeth were found in the rural population. Both residents of big cities and patients who reported for regular check-ups had the biggest number of fillings.

Conclusion. Dental caries is still a major health problem in Polish population aged 35-44. Poor oral health among the adult population in Poland is due to the low health awareness of society. This requires launching large-scale dental educational campaigns and prevention measures among adult Polish citizens, especially in rural areas.


In the future International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the interaction between the plasma and the tungsten chosen as the plasma-facing wall material imposes that the hot central plasma loses energy by X-ray emission from tungsten ions. On the other hand, the registered X-ray spectra provide alternative diagnostics of the plasma itself. Highly ionized tungsten emits extremely complex X-ray spectra that can be understood only after exhaustive theoretical studies. The detailed analyses will be useful for proper interpretation of soft X-ray plasma radiation expected to be registered on ITER-like machines, that is, Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST). The simulations of the soft X-ray spectra structures for tungsten ions have been performed using the flexible atomic code (FAC) package within the framework of collisional-radiative (CR) model approach for electron temperatures and densities relevant to WEST tokamak.


Prevention is the most effective element of measures to promote oral health. The authors have conducted an analysis of the current health system in Poland with particular emphasis put on caries prevention focused on children. It is worth noting that in the first days of life a midwife introduces „the area of dental prophylaxis“. In subsequent years of life i.e. 2, 4, 6, 10, 13, 16, 19, both the dentist and the primary care doctor provide prophylactic services. More preventive actions are organized in primary school (grades I-VI), where group fluoride prophylaxis and education in oral health are carried out by a nurse/school hygienist. The effects of preventive measures, as measured by epidemiological studies presented among others in the reports from the Monitoring of Oral Health by the Ministry of Health, show that the adopted regulations are unsatisfactory. It is necessary to carry out a public information campaign on the negative consequences of neglecting disease prevention and the consequences of incorrect early treatment of oral cavity diseases and their influence over the proper development of children.

Age-Related Blood Antioxidant Capacity in Men and Women

The aim of the study was to assess the blood antioxidant capacity in men and women in relation to age. The subjects were 19 men (YM) and 19 women (YW) aged 25-32 years, and 11 men (OM) and 11 women (OW) aged 63-71 years, all sedentary. The following factors were determined: the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), as well as plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, uric acid and total protein concentrations. The sum of standardized activities of antioxidant enzymes was calculated to compare age-related changes in the total capacity of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense. No significant age-related changes in SOD activity were observed; mean CAT activity was higher in older women and men than in younger subjects. Mean activity of GPX was higher and that of GR lower in older subjects compared to the younger ones. The calculated total erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme capacity in younger and older subjects rendered similar values. No significant differences in plasma retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in relation to sex or age were noted. The plasma total protein level was significantly lower in younger women and men compared to their older mates. It was concluded that the total erythrocyte enzymatic antioxidant capacity did not change with age. The results obtained clearly show that multiple factors may contribute to the ageing process.