The static fertilisation experiment conducted in Skierniewice (Central Poland) since 1923 investigates the effect of mineral fertilisation with lime (CaNPK) or without lime (NPK) on the accumulation and release of phosphorus in reference to phosphorus sorption properties in the sandy soil profile. In the case of application of same doses of mineral fertilisers, the content of total phosphorus was higher in NPK than CaNPK soil. Parameters related to sorption capacity and bonding energy from Langmuir and Freundlich model of P sorption were significantly lower in CaNPK than NPK soil profile. This was particularly caused by a lower content of poorly crystallised hydro(oxide) aluminium and iron forms in CaNPK than NPK soil. Higher content of oxide-extractable and bioavailable phosphorus extracted with double lactate solution, dissolved reactive phosphorus in water solution as well as degree of phosphorus saturation in the CaNPK soil profile suggests higher mobility and possibility of occurrence of losses of phosphorus from the profile of limed soil than from acidified soil. Therefore, management of phosphate fertilizers on permanently limed sandy soils requires the optimisation of phosphorus doses to a greater degree corresponding to the actual take-off of the element with crop. An additional finding of the study was evidence of the possibility of re-estimating contents of bioavailable phosphorus and, as a consequence, the degree of phosphorus saturation with Mehlich3 method in strongly acid soil receiving P mineral fertilisers, which can make it difficult to use the test for fertiliser recommendation.
The study assesses the usefulness of different methods of determining the sorption properties of soils in relation to phosphorus in the agricultural soils from Central Poland in terms of the risk of environmental pollution posed by this component. As a reference parameter necessary to achieve the study.s objective, the sorption capacity of soils for phosphorus determined on the basis of the Langmuir model was used. The results of the tests were used to calculate the degrees of soil saturation with phosphorus: PE-R/Smax (Psat1); PE-R/PSI36 (Psat2), PM3/AlM3 + FeM3 (Psat3); Pox/Alox+Feox (Psat4); PE-R/AlM3+FeM3 (Psat5); PE-R/ Alox+Feox (Psat6). The usefulness of these indicators for assessing the risk of phosphorus emissions from agricultural land was determined on the basis of the coefficients of their correlation with the amount of active phosphorus in the soil. The study proved the usefulness of the Mehlich-3 and acid ammonium oxalate solutions for assessing the sorption capacity and the degree of saturation with phosphorus of typical Polish agricultural soils. For identifying the risk of phosphorus leaching from the soils, the parameter that specifies the extent of soil saturation with phosphorus as determined by the Egner-Riehm test and the sorption index (PSI) obtained by equilibrating the soils with a solution containing 36 mg P dm.3 at the soil-to-solution ratio of 1:10 (Psat2) were also found useful.
The study was conducted on selected plots of long-term experiments in Skierniewice with different fertilization systems and crop rotation having an effect on the amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the soil. The aim of the study was to compare the results of measurements of DOC by two methods, Zsolnay’s and Houba’s, which use the same extraction solution (0.01 mol·dm-3 CaCl2), but the extraction is carried out with different proportions of extraction solution and soil, and for different durations. Soil samples for analyses were collected in the spring and autumn of 2011 from three soil horizons: Ap (0.25 cm), Eet (25.45 cm) and Bt (45.65 cm). Using the same solution to extract soil DOC (0.01 mol·dm-3 CaCl2), but extending the extraction time from 10 minutes to 2 hours and expanding the ratio of extraction solution : soil from 2:1 to 10:1 (Zsolnay’s method and Houba’s method, respectively) causes an approximately 2.4-fold increase in the amount of DOC extracted from the soil. The results obtained by the two extraction methods were characterized by statistically significant differences in precision and accuracy. The observed differences in the assessment of DOC levels in the soil obtained by the two methods were particularly pronounced at lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. The differences demonstrate that it is not possible to substitute Zsolnay’s soil test, dedicated to measuring the DOC content in the soil, with Houba’s universal test designed to measure the levels of active forms of nutrients.
This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1). The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral) soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data that indicate elevated N2O emissions from acid soils. Application of urease and nitrification inhibitors alongside nitrogen fertilization can be considered an effective practice of N2O emissions mitigation. Owing to economic reasons the use of nitrogen fertilizers with such additives is currently limited to non-agricultural segments of plant production. Afforestation of the low productive soils offers an attractive opportunity for mitigation of N2O emissions. Whereas N2O emissions from forest soils are considerably lower compared with those from the arable ones, the literature indicates that no N2O emissions mitigation is attained through a conversion of arable land to agroforestry. Considering the current forest area of Poland (24.9% of the total area) and the plans to increase the afforestation rate (to 33% in 2050) the measurable effects of this mitigation practice will only be seen in a long-term perspective.
Besides identifying and excelling the mitigation practices the authors postulate a review of the algorithms employed by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) for the calculation of the GHG emissions. Solutions applied by KOBiZE appear to address mainly the area - or population-related aspects and, to a much lesser degree, the actual N2O production. In this context, the effects of certain N2O emissions mitigation practices might be difficult to be taken into consideration. The application of national statistics of the use of mineral and natural fertilizers to the calculation of the N2O emissions from the arable soils might be questioned given that the N2O emissions are driven by the actual local N dose.
The aim of the study was to determine the levels of soil mineral elements in groundwater and the volume of that water draining from fields under different fertilization systems. In 2011, drainage systems were installed to collect groundwater from selected plots of long-term fertilization experiments located at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agriculture and Biology of Warsaw University of Life Sciences . SGGW in Skierniewice. The study involved limed (CaNPK) and unlimed (NPK) plots of two fertilization experiments, one with mineral and the other with mineral-organic fertilization. During the study, the volume of the drainage water was measured and samples of the water were analyzed for Ca, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Al. The levels of mineral elements in the water flowing out of the soil profile were found to vary significantly and were dependent on the volume of the outflow, the system of fertilization and soil acidification. The load of elements in the outflow water can be put in the following relative order: Ca>Mg>K>Na>Al>Zn>Fe>Mn>Cu. Application of manure in the dose of fertilizers increased the leaching of magnesium and potassium, as well as zinc, iron and manganese. However, organic fertilization did not increase the leaching of calcium from the soil, and reduced the activity and mobility of aluminium in the soil. Depending on the fertilization system and soil acidification status, the amounts of elements washed out with 1 m3 of water flowing out of ha a sandy soil were: 186.434 g Ca, 12.6.33 g Mg, 13.2.80 g K, 18.104.22.168 g Na, 29.5.251 mg Al, 53.184 mg Zn, 24.5.319 mg Fe, and 20.76.5 mg Mn.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of agricultural production and selected parameters of farms and data describing the flow of nutrients on the farms. An analysis model was developed for nitrogen management on farms specializing in livestock production. The study was conducted on 20 farms located in 12 municipalities of the Mazowieckie province in central Poland in 2009.2012. The model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in accordance with the backward stepwise method. Based on the regression analysis, the farm parameters that did not determine the dependent variable were eliminated. In the end, there were 10 independent variables included in the model. The model indicates that the efficiency of nitrogen management, expressed in cereal units per 1 kg of nitrogen (CU·kg-1 N), is significantly affected by: crop rotation, the demand for purchasing animal feed, the intensity of livestock production, the nitrogen content of farmyard manure, the nitrogen doses applied in mineral and natural fertilizers, and nitrogen outflow from farms with the sale of plant and animal products. The developed model explains 70% of the variation in the coefficient of efficiency expressed in cereal units per 1 kg N.