Search Results

1 - 6 of 6 items

  • Author: Ewa Stanisławska-Glubiak x
Clear All Modify Search
The Impact of the Type of Soil Contaminated with Heavy Metals on the Risk of their Translocation to the Consumption Parts of Maize

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to examine the extent to which the type of soil co-contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn affected the accumulation and distribution of these metals in maize; a crop that plays a significant role in feeding of animals and humans. Two 1-year microplot experiments were conducted using four types of soils. The soils were as follows: sandy soil with a low content of organic matter (S1), sandy soil of analogical granu-lometric composition, but with a higher content of organic mat-ter (S2), loess poor in organic matter (L1) and the same loess with its higher content (L2). The differences between the soils in terms of the availability of individual metals for maize and their transport from the roots to the aerial parts were evaluated on the basis of bioaccumulation factors (BF) and translocation indexes (TL). It was found that maize cultivation on the soil poorly pol-luted with Cd, Pb and Zn, regardless of its type, poses the dan-ger of translocation of these metals to the grains in the amounts exceeding the maximum limit in foods. However, the amount of metals accumulated in the grain, as well as in the cobs, do not exclude the use of these plant parts for feed.

Open access
Development of the limit values of micronutrient deficiency in soil determined using Mehlich 3 extractant for Polish soil conditions. Part II. Rapeseed

Abstract

The aim of the study was to develop limit values for low microelement concentration in the soil, determined with the use of Mehlich 3 extractant for assessing their deficits in rapeseed crops. The values were prepared on the basis of 1944 fields with rapeseed, covering the whole Poland. In 2017, the samplers of Polish agro-chemical laboratories took soil samples and corresponding plant samples at the BBCH 30/31 stage. In the plant samples, the concentration of microelements was determined, and in the soil samples, apart from microelements, also pH, texture and the concentration of organic carbon and available phosphorus, were determined. Moreover, for each field, data on rapeseed yield were collected. Limit values were determined by two independent methods: 1) the method of regression equations and 2) the so-called high yield method. In the first case, the limit microelement concentration in the soil was calculated from the equation describing the relationship between the R/G bioaccumulation coefficient and a specific soil feature (n=1944). The bioaccumulation coefficient is a quotient of the concentration of a microelement in a plant (R) and its concentration in the soil determined by the Mehlich 3 (G) method. Limit values were calculated after substituting the critical concentration of microelements in the plant (R) to the equation, and subsequently, an appropriate conversion of the equation. The second method was based on the separation of a group of high yields ≥4.0 t ha−1 (n=755) from the whole data set. Then in this group, the lower quintiles (QU1) were calculated for the concentration of individual microelements in the soil determined in Mehlich 3 extract and adopted as limit values. It was found that QU1 is a good indicator of the lowest microelement concentration in the soil at which a yield of at least 4.0 t ha−1 can be obtained. The final limit values were worked out by averaging the values calculated by the equations and high yield method and their appropriate correction. In the combined soil sample collections for wheat and rapeseed (n=3865), the values were checked by evaluating the percentage of soils with microelement shortage separately for rape and wheat. The results of this evaluation were compared with the evaluation using the old system based on the 1 M HCl, which did not take into account the plant species.

Open access
Effect of sulphur added to phosphate rock on solubility and phytoavailability of phosphorus

Abstract

For ground phosphate rock (GPR) to be applied as phosphorus fertilizer, the availability of phosphorus to plants needs to be improved. One possible way to achieve this is by adding sulphur, which will accelerate decomposition of phosphate in soil owing to the activation of microbiological processes. This study involved granulation of fertilizers composed of phosphate and sulphur mixed at 38:1 and 10:1 ratios and two analogous fertilizer variants but with added molasses as a source of organic carbon for sulphur bacteria. A small-scale industrial installation for production of multi-component fertilizers was used to make granular fertilizer by the compaction method. The granular fertilizers were then tested in an agricultural experiment. The fertilizer in which the phosphate to sulphur ratio was 10:1 produced better effects. Addition of molasses to the fertilizers did not improve their fertilizing capacity

Open access
Development of the limit values of micronutrient deficiency in soil determined using Mehlich 3 extractant for Polish soil conditions. Part I. Wheat

Abstract

To implement the Mehlich 3 method in Polish agro-chemical laboratories, limit values for deficiency of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in soil for wheat were developed. The values were developed on the basis of 1921 fields with wheat, evenly distributed throughout Poland. Soil samples were collected from these fields in 2016, together with the plants growing on them, at the stage of stem elongation (BBCH 30/31). The concentration of micronutrients was determined in all soil and plant samples. In addition, pH, texture, and the content of organic carbon and available phosphorus were determined in soil samples. Moreover, grain yield after wheat harvest was estimated for all fields. Limit values were developed by two independent methods: 1) the regression equation method and 2) the so-called high yield method. In the first case, the limit microelement concentration in soil was calculated from the equation describing the relationship between the bioaccumulation factor (R/G) and a specific soil feature (n=1921). The bioaccumulation factor is the quotient of the concentration of a micronutrient in a plant (R) and its concentration in the soil (G) determined by the Mehlich 3 method. The equations were constructed using the Stagraphics program. For each micronutrient, 8 models were tested in search for the equation with the highest determination coefficient r2. Limit values were calculated after substituting the critical value of microelements in the plant (R) to the selected model and transforming the equation accordingly. The basis of the second method was to separate the “high yield group” ≥7.0 t ha−1 (n=578) from the entire data set. In this group, lower quintiles for the Mehlich 3-concentration of individual microelements in soil were calculated. The lower quintiles (QU1) were taken as limit values. It was assumed that QU1 is a good indicator of the lowest micronutrient concentration in the soil at which a yield of 7.0 t ha−1 or higher can be obtained. The comparison of the values calculated with the regression equations method and the high yield method showed their similarity, which confirmed the reliability of these values. The proposed values define the limit for low microelements concentration in soil determined with the Mehlich 3 method, below which wheat fertilization with these nutrients is recommended.

Open access
The usefulness of the rock dust for the remediation of soils contaminated with nickel / Przydatność pyłu kamiennego do remediacji gleb zanieczyszczonych niklem

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to examine whether the addition of waste rock dust to light soil contaminated with nickel will increase the yields of cultivated plants and reduce their excessive nickel content. The research was conducted in concrete microplots of 1 m2 dimension in the complete randomisation system, as a twofactor experiment in four replications. The first factor was the level of soil contamination: (1) Ni0 - soil with natural Ni content; (2) Ni1 - 100; (3) Ni2 - 150 and (4) Ni3 - 270 mg • kg-1 of the soil. The second factor was the level of remediation: (1) control without remediation and (2) rock dust at a dose of 3 kg • m-2. The test results indicate that the use of waste rock dust can improve growth conditions of reed canary grass on the soil contaminated with nickel, in the first year of its cultivation. Addition of rock dust to the soil contaminated with nickel 150 mg • kg-1 caused an increase in tolerance of reed canary grass to nickel (tolerance index) from 0.55 to 0.77. There was an increase in the yield of biomass of aerial parts and a decrease in the concentration of nickel in plants growing in soils with the addition of dust.

Open access
Usefulness of rock dust waste for the remediation of zinc contaminated soils / Przydatność odpadowego pyłu skalnego do remediacji gleb zanieczyszczonych cynkiem

Abstract

The aim of this study was to check whether the addition of waste rock dust to the soil contaminated with zinc will improve the yield of reed canary grass and reduce excessive amounts of zinc in its biomass. The study was carried out in the micro-plots made of concrete, as a two-factorial experiment, in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. The first factor of the experiment was the level of soil contamination with zinc: 1) Zn0 - the soil with natural Zn concentration; 2) Zn1 - 200; 3) Zn2 - 400; 4) Zn3 - 800 mg/kg soil. The second factor was the level of remediation: 1) control, without remediation, 2) with remediation (rock dust applied at the rate 3 kg • m-2). The results of the study indicate that application of waste rock dust can improve the conditions of reed canary grass growth in the soil contaminated with zinc. At the highest level of contamination (Zn3), soil amendment with rock dust resulted in increased yields of reed canary grass dry matter, in two crops, by 136 and 176%, respectively, as compared with corresponding control objects without dust addition. At the same time, the concentrations of zinc in the plants grown in the soil amended with dust were about 16% lower, and the soluble forms of this element in soil, determined in extraction with 1 mol HCl • dm-3, were about 25% lower, as compared with control plots.

Open access