Variables occurring in a real estate market are frequently presented on scales other than interval or ratio scales. Most frequently, the scale is an ordinal (for instance – onerous, unfavourable, neutral, favourable), or possibly a nominal one. That is why the use of scales intended for quantitative attributes (such as Pearson linear correlation coefficient) is not possible. The paper presents the results of employing other coefficients (Kendall’s τB and Spearman’s ρ coefficients) in analyzing correlations on the real estate market.
The objective of the article is to present a method of analyzing the correlation of qualitative variables (attributes) and to present the possibility of using the obtained results in the process of real estate appraisal.
Environmental requirements, constantly increasing energy prices as well as energy consumption by residential units and buildings have become an important factor in the decision-making processes in the real estate market. The preferences of residential unit buyers who recognize the problem of energy intensity and translate it into the transaction price have also been changing. However, amendments to the Act on real estate management and new European standards have imposed an obligation to include the certificates of energy performance of buildings and premises on real estate valuers in the valuation process. In this paper, energy intensity understood as the heating requirements of multi-family residential buildings is the basis for assessing the impact of the proposed variants on the market value of residential units. The paper analyzes the energy intensity of various types of buildings (e.g. in low and high buildings) and its impact on the market value of residential units in a selected housing estate in Szczecin, when the property valuer has access to energy performance certificates of neither the unit under valuation nor the units selected for comparison. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the energy intensity and the market value of residential units. The proposed three models of real estate market value: non-classical, multiple regression and average price adjustment taking into account energy intensity, obtain results consistent with the actual transaction price at a satisfactory level. The assessment was made using standard deviation, a coefficient of variation and the average error of forecasts.
The article analyzes the influence of planning decisions on changes taking place on the local real estate market. Three stages of the planning process are studied in particular, i.e.: the passing of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, the Commune Council Resolution on initiating the formulation of a local spatial development plan, and finally the Resolution on accepting the local plan, as well as the effects of these activities on the land value in a given real estate market in Stargard Szczeciński, in the West-Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie) Province of Poland. The object of the research is to identify the indicated relationships on a given real estate market, on which respective spatial planning stages can be distinguished, as well as the strength and course of the analyzed relationships. The study will verify the research hypothesis regarding the strength and directions of the effects of planning decisions as the direct and indirect reasons behind price changes on the real estate market. The analysis uses data from the Price Register and the District Starosty Values, along with statistical and public information data and the authors' own studies.
Trading in agricultural land in the Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship (a high-level administrative subdivision of Poland) is strictly connected with the local activity of the ANR (Agencja Nieruchomości Rolnych - Agricultural Market Agency), which is the effect of historical problems concerning the ownership of arable land left over from the communist era. In effect, the Polish State Treasury is still in charge of managing state-owned farmland and, therefore, plays an important role in shaping local agricultural land markets. The study includes all the sale transactions concluded by the Szczecin division of the ANR in the Zachodniopomorskie gminas.
The subjects of the study are lands described by quantitative variables, such as: property size, location, date of sale and sale price. The purpose of the study was to define the structure of agricultural land sold by the ANR. The authors verified their research hypothesis concerning the stability of land structure over time of the agricultural land being sold.
The decisions of buyers on the housing market are not only the sum of their subjective expectations but also of the perception of real estate through a prism of opinions and suggestions arising from the surroundings. One of the basic criteria driving households determined to meet basic housing needs is security. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between the transaction prices of housing and the crime rate in the various districts of Szczecin. For this purpose, data from the Regional Police Headquarters in Szczecin (i.e. map of crimes) and transactional data from notarial acts are analyzed in the work. Then, using statistical and econometric models, spatial relationships of the examined crimes are investigated.
Mass valuation of real estate requires meeting a combination of several demands, such as estimating a large number of real estate properties in a short time, and above all carrying out calculations using the same tools. Econometric models ensuring that the above requirements are met are widely used throughout the world. Their application is subject to the fulfillment of assumptions, which, in practice, turns out to be difficult, especially in a market with low information efficiency, which the real estate market is an example of. Hence, apart from classical models, including multiple regression, there are proposals of non-classical models. Additionally, researchers usually analyze the market of apartments or land in urbanized areas, whereas the research area in the article is non-urbanized areas. The nonclassical model of mass valuation of agricultural property tested in the Szczecin center for ad valorem property tax purposes can be treated as an alternative to classical models. The article discusses the methodology of mass valuation of undeveloped agricultural properties in non-urbanized areas, with a proposal of features significantly affecting the value of these properties. A comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of classic and non-classical models used in the mass valuation of real estate was also carried out. The issues addressed are important given the different concepts of introducing cadastral value in Poland, but also the concepts of mass valuation in developing countries where there is not enough developed methodology of real estate estimation by authorized entities.
Research background: Every real estate may be described with a multitude of attributes. In the process of real estate appraisal only those properties are taken into account that significantly affect its value. Mass appraisal involves a simultaneous valuation of many similar real properties, carried out in the same manner and at the same time. The algorithm applied to mass appraisal ought to ensure a uniform approach to the valuation of all real estate of the same type in an objective fashion.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to define the weights of attributes in the process of real estate mass appraisal on the basis of relationships between unit property value and the values of attributes.
Research methodology: The weights were defined on the grounds of partial correlation coefficients for the qualitative properties (Spearman rank correlation coefficient and τB Kendall correlation coefficient).
Results: The signs of certain correlation coefficients were discordant with the actual direction of the relations between the analysed properties. The problem was avoided by employing partial correlation coefficients. On the basis of the calculated partial correlation coefficients the weights of individual attributes were calculated. Of all analysed coefficients the partial τB Kendall correlation coefficient is methodologically the most suitable one.
Novelty: The use of partial correlation coefficients for determining attribute weights is an innovative approach and is applied in the article.
The Presented research aims to analyze the Lithuanian and Polish housing markets in terms of the quality of life in new residential buildings. The article presents the concept of customer satisfaction in construction and criteria that define the quality of dwellings; the benefits, consequences, merits and demerits of the assessment of customer satisfaction are also named. A survey of customer satisfaction helps to evaluate the quality of dwellings according to their technical and functional parameters, as well as the degree of cooperation between customers and developers/contractors. The customer satisfaction index (CSI) was calculated for both countries. The results are useful for developers, contractors, facility management companies and building users.