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  • Author: Ewa M. Pawlaczyk x
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Ewa M. Pawlaczyk and Maria A. Bobowicz

Abstract

Progeny from nineteen family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the Tisovik Reserve growing in an experimental plot were analyzed based on 4 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci and 12 morphological and anatomical needle traits. The Tisovik Reserve is located in Białowieża Primeval Forest, 120 km north of the natural range limit of this species, and embraces a small and isolated natural population of silver fir. The aim of this study was to determine genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of phenotypic variation showed that the traits which differed most among individuals were the needle width and the distance from resin canals to vascular bundle. Those traits, which differed most between the progeny lines, were the number of endodermic cells around the vascular bund and the weight of hypodermic cells. In Tisovik progeny, we detected 107 different haplotypes. In progeny lines, we detected more haplotypes than in maternal trees, and most haplotypes did not exist in maternal trees. This may be the result of pollen influx from other silver fir stands. Progeny from Tisovik showed a higher level of variability in comparison with maternal trees.

Open access

Paulina Lesiczka, Ewa M. Pawlaczyk, Bartosz Łabiszak and Lech Urbaniak

Abstract

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most widespread forest trees in the world, ranging from southern Mediterranean mountains to eastern Siberia. 30 trees of Scots pine from the Miłomłyn Forest District were analyzed in terms of 7 nuclear and 8 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci as well as 7 morphological needle traits. Nuclear microsatellites (Simple Sequence Repeats) have proved to be useful in studying phylogeographic and gene flow patterns in conifers and are being used to infer the demographic history of tree species. A population’s genetic diversity, in fact, represents an important criterion which could be applied in planning future forest management and breeding. Additionally, many elements of Scots pine morphology, including needle traits, are subject to environmental modification. However, the adaptability of those traits remains, to some extent, under genetic control. The trees we investigated here are called Tabórz pine located in the northeast of Poland. This population is described as one of the best in Poland and even in Europe regarding bio mass production, ductility and wood quality. The aim of the study was to determine variation and genetic structure within this population. An analysis of phenotypic differentiation showed that the traits which differed the most between individuals were needle length, the number of serrations per 2 mm of needle length along the right edge and the number of stomatal rows on the convex side of the needles. In Tabórz pine, we detected 30 different genotypes with 87 alleles as well as 28 haplotypes with 30 alleles. We also revealed a slight excess of homozygotes, but the population is still in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The Scots pine population from Tabórz furthermore showed a higher level of genetic diversity compared to stands from other Polish and European regions. This diversity may be the main factor impacting on the population’s wood quality and its breeding value.

Open access

Ewa M. Pawlaczyk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Piotr Wawrzyniak, Magdalena Czołpińska, Patrycja Gonera and Katarzyna Buczkowska-Chmielewska

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to describe the variation between the populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra based on the morphological and anatomical traits of their needles, and to investigate the relationship between the observed variation and environmental conditions (altitude and substrate). Two-year-old needles were collected from 180 individuals of six populations of P. mugo growing in the Tatra Mts. Two populations were classified as dense, located at 1360–1450 m altitude, and the remaining four formed loose clusters and were situated at 1500–1650 m altitude. Four of the populations are growing on granite and two on a limestone substrate. The natural variation of 10 morpho-anatomical and 3 synthetic needle traits was measured. In addition to descriptive statistics, the analyses of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey test and principal component analysis were computed. We also estimated Pearson correlation coefficients for the examined needle traits and altitude as well as substrate. Our results indicate that the P. mugo populations differ significantly with regard to the investigated traits for which the Trzydniowiański Wierch population was the most distinct. The observed pattern of variability is largely caused by differences in stomatal traits and these features are positive correlated with altitude. Additionally, populations growing on granite have larger values for most of the examined traits compared to populations growing on limestone.