Małgorzata Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk and Ewa Simon
Volvicoccus stipae (Borchsenius, 1949) in Poland (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)
Volvicoccus stipae (Borchsenius, 1949) was recorded for the first time in Poland in 2008. Data on the new record of this species, distribution, host plants and morphology are given.
Ewa Simon and Małgorzata Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk
Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Upper Silesia
Faunistic research conducted in Poland for over 80 years has led to the discovery of 143 species of scale insects that live in the natural environment. The state of knowledge of the coccoid fauna of individual areas is uneven, however, 83 species of scale insects from 8 families were collected in Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk). Upper Silesia is the region in Poland with the fourth-largest number of species; it is preceded by the Kraków-Wieluń Upland (94 species), Roztocze (88) and the Świętokrzyskie Mts. (86). Two of the species collected in this area - Trionymus hamberdi and Volvicoccus stipae - are known only from this region. The paper gives a list of scale insect species collected in Upper Silesia together with information on their localities.
Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Adam Jurgonski, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Monika Kosmala, Joanna Milala, Zenon Zduńczyk, Bartosz Fotschki and Ewa Żary-Sikorska
In two experiments on rats it was analyzed whether the lowering rate of postprandial glycaemia depends on the degree of polymerization of strawberry ellagitannins (ET). Two types of highly-concentrated polyphenolic extracts were used, one rich in monomeric ET (ETM; 94.9% polyphenols and 67% ETM in it), the second in dimeric ET (ETD; 95.9% polyphenols, and 78.0% ETD in it). The experiment 1 comprised three oral sugar tolerance tests, GTT (with glucose; to examine monosaccharide transport across epithelium), SuTT (with sucrose; to examine the activity of mucosal disaccharidase) and StTT (with starch; to examine the action of salivary alpha-amylase, and then of pancreatic amylase in the small intestine as well as all the aforementioned mechanisms), while in the experiment 2 the healthy and pre-diabetic rats were subjected to 1-h small intestine perfusion with fluids containing glucose or sucrose. Considering the shape of blood glucose concentration curve following GTT and SuTT, as well as changes in glycaemia and mucosal disaccharidases activity observed within and after small intestine perfusion, the ETM (vs. ETD) extract more positively mitigated sugar-induced post-prandial glycaemic load. Contrary to expectations, the effect of extracts on pre-diabetic rats was negligible. The extract ETD, in turn, potently mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycaemic load during test StTT. The results clearly showed that the separate mechanisms (glucose transport across the intestine, intestinal mucosal disaccharidases inhibition activity, pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity) leading to decreased postprandial glycaemia upon dietary administration of strawberry ellagitannins largely depended on their chemical structure, i.e. degree of polymerization.