In comparison to other energy producing techniques, photovoltaics (PV) is one of the most promising options: no emission of any matter into the environment during operation; extremely long operation period (estimated average: 25 years), minimum maintenance, robust technique, aesthetic aspects. The use of photovoltaics is rapidly increasing, and the respective market is developing accordingly. Although PV manufacturing equipment is now excluded from the scope of RoHS, according to the Kyoto Protocol and the EU Directives WEEE and RoHS the use of hazardous substances in electric/electronic devices has to be reduced stepwise to approximately zero level. Furthermore, a total recycling of nearly all materials involved is aimed. Thus, major attention is directed to avoidance of environmental pollution through combustion or landfill, to regain valuable material, to promote the development and use of renewable energy sources. As the lifetime of PV cells themselves is much longer than that of PV modules and the manufacturing process of cells requires much energy consumption, the reuse of base material of the cells is economically justified. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate existing methods of PV cells and modules recycling. The article discusses the main outcomes and analyses the significance of recycling in relation to the environmental profile of the production and total life cycle of photovoltaic cells and modules
In European Union 75% of used tires should be recycled. The most common method of used tires disposal, is burning in cement kilns, which does not solve the problem. Pyrolysis process can be an alternative way of utilization of tires. The aim of the researches was to check the influence of pyrolysis products (gas and oil fractions) on environment. Samples from pyrolysis process, like light oil fractions or pyrolysis gases were analyzed using gas chromatography. The pyrolysis installation should be hermetical, because of the PAHs which were detected in a light fraction of oil. In exhaust gases BTEX and PAHs were not detected.
Vegetable oils are renewable feedstock currently being used for production of biofuels from sustainable biomass resources. The existing technology for producing diesel fuel from plant oils, such as rapeseed, soybean, canola and palm oil are largely centered on transesterification of oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel. Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a byproduct of biodiesel production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. The interest to use different types of biomass as fuels has grown rapidly during the last years as a mean to reduce the CO2 emissions of energy production. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage, the sources of biomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer’s own energetic demand is obtained. In this article the experimental results of analyzing the emissions levels of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation were presented. It has been proved that that the pellet, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is an excellent renewable and environmentally-friendly energy source, especially viable for use in household tap water heating installations.
The article is devoted to the description of material recycling of whole waste tires, including a new method of pyrolysis process, resulting in the final products: technically oil fractions (rubber plasticizer of rubber compounds) or diesel fuels (light, medium and heavy), activated carbon, gas fuel and steel scrap. Operational and performance tests of the first version of the pilot plant, consisting of three contributions cooperating with one pyrolytic reactor confirmed that this technology is applicable but has still some flaws and errors, both structural and technological. Usually such errors in the first test of technology development cannot be avoided. This paper describes: pyrolysis processes which occurs in the pilot plant, protected by a patent application design of continuously working prototype installation for recycling of tire and identifies future directions of research in this field
In the recent years photovoltaic (PV) industry has experienced a major growth, caused by the ever present annual decrease in module production prices and the expanding awareness of the general public in terms of renewable energy. There are numerous ways to implement PV modules as an additional energy source for a building, be it mounted on the rooftop, or building integrated (BIPV). An analysis of BIPV consisting of 8 modules with the power of 250 Wp each was carried out for the building of the Chemistry Faculty of Gdansk University of Technology (GUT). It included monthly irradiance and energy generation values and compared them to data obtained by the means of PV-GIS system, after inserting site specific coordinates. Additional research on the same type of a single module with the power of 270 Wp was conducted to provide more insight in this matter. A comprehensible analysis allows for defining a final conclusion for the decrease in energy yield for GUT BIPV installation. Data outputs are lower than expected based on PV-GIS values, as for the most time the facade mounted PV system experiences partial soft shading from the nearby park. Furthermore, it is not located directly facing south, but rather south-east which does not prompt ideal working conditions.