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Open access

Alicja Stachura, Barbara Bojarojć-Nosowicz, Dariusz Kaczmarczyk and Ewa Kaczmarczyk

Abstract

Introduction: Numerous mutations in the bovine tumour necrosis factor receptor type two (TNF-RII) gene have been identified, but their biological consequences remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphism in the analysed loci of the bovine TNF-RII gene is linked with the size of cell subpopulations naturally infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) which serve important immune functions in the host. Material and Methods: Samples originated from 78 cows. Polymorphisms in the studied gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. BLV infection was diagnosed by the immunofluorescence (IMF) technique and nested PCR. Cell subpopulations were immunophenotyped with IMF. Results: Similar and non-significant differences in the average percentages of TNFα+, IgM+TNFα+, and CD11b+TNFα+ cells infected with BLV were noted in individuals with various genotypes in the polymorphic sites g.-1646T > G and g.16534T > C of the TNF-RII gene, and significant differences in the percentages of these subpopulations were observed between selected microsatellite genotypes (g.16512CA(n)). Conclusion: STR polymorphism and the number of CA dinucleotide repeats in intron 1 of the TNF-RII gene influence the frequency of TNF+, CD11b+TNF+, and IgM+TNF+ subpopulations naturally infected with BLV. Polymorphism in the gene’s other two sites do not affect the size of these cell subpopulations.

Open access

Ewa Dziedzic, Jan Błaszczyk and Elżbieta Kaczmarczyk

ABSTRACT

‘Regina’ sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.) harvested from trees grown on vigorous and semi-dwarfing rootstocks was stored in normal atmosphere (NA) at 8°C and 2°C, and in a controlled atmosphere (CA) 3% O2 + 5% CO2 at 2°C for two weeks. At harvest time, the fruits differed in the measured quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content - SSC, titratable acidity - TA) depending on the rootstock. The storage conditions and the rootstocks significantly influenced the fruit quality parameters after storage. Generally, reduced fruit firmness and TA, and higher SSC and SSC/TA ratio were observed at the end of the storage period. Among the rootstocks, the lowest soluble solids content was found in the fruit from trees on the vigorous F12/1 rootstock. The lower storage temperature decreased the SSC independently of the storage atmosphere composition. Firmer fruit was found in CA 2°C compared with the other two treatments. The greatest loss of weight was found after fruit storage in NA 8°C. The extent of fruit decay depended on the season, storage conditions and the rootstock. Storage in NA 8°C of the fruit grown on F12/1 rootstock resulted in the highest percentage of fungal decay. The best retention of the green colour of the peduncle was noted in CA 2°C. The findings on how the rootstocks affect sweet cherry fruit properties can be useful for sweet cherry breeding programmes, as well as for sweet cherry crop production and storage technologies.

Open access

Ewa Kaczmarczyk, Barbara Bojarojć-Nosowicz and Urszula Czarnik

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine whether insertion-deletion (indel) 23 bp polymorphism of the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene differentiates the total number of leukocytes and lymphocytes and the number of virus-infected lymphocytes. The experimental materials comprised 119 Black-and-White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine leukosis was diagnosed by an indirect immunofluorescence based on the detection of viral protein p24 in bovine lymphocytes infected with leukaemia virus (BLV). Indel23 polymorphism was determined by PCR. Blood haematological parameters (total leukocyte counts, total lymphocyte counts, and their percentages) were determined at a specialist haematological laboratory. The examined indices were analysed in three replications, at one-month intervals. It was found that indel23 polymorphism significantly differentiated blood leukocyte counts and the total number and percentage of lymphocytes. Cows with the 23 bp del/del genotype showed significantly higher leukocyte and lymphocyte counts than animals with the remaining two genotypes. Higher values of the analysed haematological parameters noted in homozygotes with 23 bp deletion are similar to the values reported in cows affected by persistent lymphocytosis, thus pointing to an adverse effect of this genotype on the haemopoiesis process. The variations between indel23 genotypes and the number and percentage of BLV-infected lymphocytes are less obvious and more difficult to interpret.

Open access

Monika Bieniasz, Ewa Dziedzic and Elżbieta Kaczmarczyk

Abstract

Stability of vitamin C in stored fruit and sugar syrup of Japanese quince was tested. Vitamin C was measured in the fruit at harvest and after a few weeks of storage under normal atmospheric conditions. Sugar syrup obtained from the fruit was subjected to analysis before and after pasteurisation, and after several weeks of storage. The Chaenomeles genotypes tested were valuable in terms of vitamin C content. Storage significantly reduced the vitamin C content in the fruit, by 20% on average after 2 weeks of storage. The mechanical treatment and preparation of sugar syrup decreased the vitamin content by nearly two-thirds when compared with the fruit at harvest. Pasteurisation and storage of the sugar syrup contributed to further losses of vitamin C, reducing it to a very low level.

Open access

Tomasz Marciniak, Ida Wiszomirska, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk and Ewa Kozdroń

Streszczenie

Wstąp. Inwolucyjne zmiany organizmu w procesie starzenia są wieloczynnikowe. a niektóre z nich mają wpływ na pogorszenie jakości lokomocji. Wyróżnia się wśród nich między innymi: spadek sił}' mięśniowej czy zmniejszenie zakresu ruchomości w stawach. Objawy tych zaburzeń manifestują się zmianą niektórych parametrów czasowo-przestrzennych chodu, przede wszystkim: zmniejszeniem prędkości chodu i długości kroku oraz zwiększeniem szerokości kroku.

Cel. Celem pracy była ocena wpływu różnych form treningowych na czasowo-przestrzenne parametry chodu osób starszych.

Materiał. Badaniem objęto 59 słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku AWF Warszawa. Badania lekarskie i wysiłkowe pozwoliły wykluczyć wszelkie przeciwwskazania zdrowotne. Dokonano podziału na dwie grupy treningowe: TW - trening wszechstronny i TN - trening w pozycjach niskich. Badania ukończyło po 14 osób z każdej z grup.

Metody. Pomiary wykonano przy użyciu platformy FDM Zebris. która rejestrowała parametry czasowo-przestrzenne badanych. Ich zadaniem było trzykrotne przejście po platformie z naturalną dla siebie prędkością. Cykl treningów trwał 12 tygodni, zajęcia odbywały się dwa razy w tygodniu i trwały 45 minut. Zasadnicza różnica pomiędzy treningami polegała na eliminacji ćwiczeń lokomocji i ćwiczeń w pozycjach wysokich w grupie TN. Analizę statystyczną przeprowadzono przy użyciu oprogramowania Statistica.

Wyniki. W wyniku treningu wszechstronnego wśród badanych zaobserwowano istotną zmianę sześciu parametrów chodu:. długość kroku prawej kończyny dolnej. długości kroku prawej kończyny dolnej (jako % długości kończyny), czas kroku prawej i lewej kończyny dolnej, czas cyklu chodu oraz kadencji. Pozostałe parametry wykazały pewną tendencję, lecz ich zmian nie można przypisać przeprowadzonemu treningowi. Badani grapy TN nie wykazali istotnych zmian w analizowanych parametrach.

Wnioski. Zmiany jakości chodu są wieloczynnikowe. istnieje więc potrzeba dalszych dociekań. w celu ich rozpoznania oraz modyfikacji w ramach treningu czy terapii. Dobór ćwiczeń zastosowanych w treningu powinien strukturalnie odzwierciedlać docelowy element, któiy ma być kształtowany.

Open access

Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Masouda Rahim, Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Krzysztof Ficek, Monika Michałowska-Sawczyn, Waldemar Moska, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Michał Brzeziański, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Paweł Cięszczyk and Alison V. September

Abstract

Collagen alpha-1(V) chain, encoded by the COL5A1 gene, plays a crucial role in abundant fibrillar collagens supporting many tissues in the body containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the association between heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen occurring among others in muscles, tendons and ligaments. Taking this fact into consideration we decided to examine the association between COL5A1 rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms, individually and as inferred haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament rupture risk (ACLR) in professional soccer players. A total of 134 male professional soccer players with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and 211 apparently healthy male professional soccer players, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury, were included in the study. Both the cases and the healthy controls were recruited from the same soccer teams, of a similar age category, and had a comparable level of exposure to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA MiniprepKit. All samples were genotyped for the rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms using a Rotor-Gene realtime polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies for the COL5A1 rs13946 polymorphisms in dominant modes of inheritance occurred (p = 0.039). Statistically significant differences were documented only in the dominant model under the representation tendency of the C-C haplotype in the ACLR group compared to controls (p = 0.038). Our results suggest that variation in the COL5A1 gene may be one of the non-modifiable factors associated with the ACL injury in professional soccer players. The C-C rs12722-rs13946 haplotype provides a protective effect against the ACL tear.