In this paper we attempt to determine the nature and strength of the relationship between the use of formulaic sequences and productive fluency of native speakers of Polish. In particular, we seek to validate the claim that speech characterized by a higher incidence of formulaic sequences is produced more rapidly and with fewer hesitation phenomena. The analysis is based on monologic speeches delivered by 45 speakers of L1 Polish. The data include both the recordings and their transcriptions annotated for a number of objective fluency measures. In the first part of the study the total of formulaic sequences is established for each sample. This is followed by determining a set of temporal measures of the speakers’ output (speech rate, articulation rate, mean length of runs, mean length of pauses, phonation time ratio). The study provides some preliminary evidence of the fluency-enhancing role of formulaic language. Our results show that the use of formulaic sequences is positively and significantly correlated with speech rate, mean length of runs and phonation time ratio. This suggests that a higher concentration of formulaic material in output is associated with faster speed of speech, longer stretches of speech between pauses and an increased amount of time filled with speech.
Although various dimensions of speech fluency have so far generated a great deal of research interest, very few accounts have tackled the issue of the relationship between L1 and L2 fluency. Also, little empirical evidence has been provided to support the claim that language users are more fluent in their mother tongue than in a foreign/second language. This study examines the fluency gap between L1 and L2 fluency using a battery of objectively quantifiable temporal measures of speed and breakdown fluency. It also attempts to identify those temporal fluency variables which are affected by the individual way of speaking rather than the degree of automatisation of speech processing and which underlie oral performance both in L1 and L2. The analysis draws on transcriptions of elicited speech samples in L1 (Polish) and L2 (English).
This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between productive fluency and the use of formulaic sequences in the speech of highly proficient L2 learners. Two samples of learner speech were randomly drawn and analysed. Formulaic sequences were identified on the basis of two distinct procedures: a frequency-based, distributional approach which returned a set of recurrent sequences (n-grams) and an intuition and criterion-based, linguistic procedure which returned a set of phrasemes. Formulaic material was then removed from the data. Breakdown and speed fluency measures were obtained for the following types of speech: baseline (pre-removal), formulaic, non-formulaic (post-removal). The results show significant differences between baseline and post-removal fluency scores for both learners. Also, formulaic speech is produced more fluently than non-formulaic speech. However, the comparison of the fluency scores of n-grams and phrasemes returned inconsistent results with significant differences reported only for one of the samples.
Joanna Girzelska, Ewa Guz, Magdalena Nieckula and Marek Dąbrowski
Aim. Analysis of the impact of educational simulation on the level of knowledge, skills and competences of nursing students.
Methods. The research used a non-systematic literature analysis method. Literature was classified for analysis, from which the contents on the impact of educational simulation on the education process of nursing students were selected. During the qualification of the magazines Google Scholar was used. Articles published in electronic databases were used: EBSCOhost, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect.
Conclusions. Education conducted using educational simulation in nursing not only increases the level of knowledge, skills and competences of students but also increases the quality of patient care and their security.
Leszek Guz, Zbigniew Grądzki, Monika Krajewska, Marek Lipiec, Anna Zabost, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Zofia Zwolska and Krzysztof Szulowski
Systemic mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in a group of ornamental fish. Although a large number of acid-fast bacterial rods were identified in the kidneys, liver, and muscles of each fish, no granulomas were observed in internal organs. Mycobacterium peregrinum was identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay. This study illustrates a considerable risk of atypical mycobacteriosis in humans.
Joanna Skulimowska, Paweł Turowski, Edyta Klimczak-Jajor, Marzena Dębska, Katarzyna Guz and Ewa Brojer
Talasemia alfa to niedokrwistość wynikająca z mutacji w genach kodujących alfa-globinę lub w elementach regulatorowych klastra alfa-globiny. Zespół hemoglobiny Barta to najcięższa postać tej niedokrwistości, spowodowana defektem genetycznym prowadzącym do całkowitego braku syntezy alfa-globiny, najczęściej wynikającym z delecji obu kopii genów z każdego allelu. U chorych nie są syntetyzowane dwie dominujące hemoglobiny niezbędne dla prawidłowej ontogenezy – HbF w okresie płodowym oraz postnatalnie HbA. Hemoglobiną dominującą jest hemoglobina Barta, składająca się wyłącznie z łańcuchów gamma-globiny. Choroba ujawnia się w okresie prenatalnym w postaci niedokrwistości oraz obrzęku płodu. Przypadek tej postaci talasemii alfa został zdiagnozowany i był skutecznie leczony prenatalnie w jednym z ośrodków w Polsce. W pracy przedstawiono jego opis kliniczny oraz zaprezentowano wyniki badań biochemicznych i molekularnych.
Edyta Klimczak-Jajor, Joanna Skulimowska, Anna Ejduk, Katarzyna Guz, Małgorzata Uhrynowska and Ewa Brojer
This report presents a case of an adult Polish women of Caucasian origin who was heterozygous for the nondeletional mutation: Hb Handsworth (HBA2 or HBA1: c.55G > C, p.Gly19Arg) and deletional (-α3.7) α-thalassemia mutation.
The HbA2 and HbF levels were measured by microcolumn chromatography and alkaline denaturation procedure, respectively, while electrophoresis was used to detect pathological hemoglobin fraction. The β- and α-globin genotypes were determined by DNA sequencing, gap-polymerase chain reaction, α gene triplication and MLPA.
The HbA2 and HbF levels were normal, but hemoglobin electrophoresis on agarose gel alkaline pH showed a strong band migration in a position of hemoglobin S and faint bands in the neighborhood of band A on acid electrophoresis. Molecular analysis of the alpha globin cluster detected a point mutation at codon 19 in HBA2 (c.55G > C, p.Gl- y19Arg) and deletion -α3.7.
Our compound heterozygosity does not produce severe clinical or hematological symptoms but it is important to say that in our part of Europe such cases do appear. Molecular analysis of the alpha globin cluster is required for correct diagnosis in patients with normal HbA2 levels. Compound heterozygosity was unmasked by molecular diagnosis only.