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Ewa Gruszczyńska and Aleksandra Kroemeke

Coping after myocardial infarction. The mediational effects of positive and negative emotions

The aim of the study was to examine mediational effects of positive and negative emotions (PEs and NEs) on the relationship between cognitive appraisal and coping after myocardial infarction (MI). Subjects were 163 patients assessed a few days after their first MI episode for cognitive appraisal using the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire developed by Wrześniewski and based on the Lazarus theory. The participants' current emotional state and coping strategies were evaluated with Polish versions of the PANAS and CISS-S, respectively. The data were analyzed using the boostrapping procedure. Resultant models turned out to be similar for threat and loss appraisal, where PEs mediated task-oriented coping, while NEs were found to mediate emotion-oriented coping. A different relationship was found for challenge. Due to a significant intercorrelation among appraisals, mediational models for threat and loss were re-analyzed when controlling for challenge. Nevertheless, even if a situation is perceived as highly stressful, both positive and negative emotions can emerge, resulting in strategies that serve different functions to meet external and internal demands.

Open access

Beata Aleksandra Basińska and Ewa Gruszczyńska

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio) and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women) and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000). Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010). The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

Open access

Ewa Gruszczyńska, Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska and Aleksandra Kroemeke

Abstract

The aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of change in state affect following the introduction of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. State affect was assessed twice among 305 patients: just before the introduction of insulin therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Latent class growth modeling showed that negative affect (NA) increased in 78% of the sample, whereas positive affect (PA) improved in only 17% of the participants. On the basis of cross-tabulation of these changes a 4-class model of emotional response to the new treatment was obtained. The largest subgroup of participants (57%) manifested “threat response”, i.e. moderate-stable PA with increase in NA. Participants in the “challenge response” subgroup (11.8%) showed increases in both NA and PA. The third class (10.2%) characterized by “no response”, had low-stable NA and moderate-stable PA. The smallest “stress response” subgroup (9.8%) showed increase in NA and high-stable PA. Gender, age and education level were significant covariates of group membership. Thus, the findings revealed heterogeneous emotional response to the new treatment, which may be of clinical relevance for improving diabetic patients’ adjustment through a more individual, person-centered approach.

Open access

Helena Wrona-Polańska and Ewa Gruszczyńska