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Filip Edmund Gęstwicki and Ewa Wędrowska

Abstract

The increase in income and wealth inequality observed in the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century is the subject of many analyses and discussions. Research shows that major changes in household incomes in Poland took place in the early years of transition (1990–1992), known as a ‘revolution in income’. The article focuses on the assessment of the degree of household income inequality after the Poland’s accession to the European Union. The most commonly used measures in income inequality studies are the measures of inequality based on the Lorenz function – a popular Gini coefficient and the Schutz ratio, measures using the concept of entropy, measures based on welfare function, or measures based on income distribution quantiles. The article proposes the possibility of broadening the measuring spectrum of income inequality analysis of the Csiszár’s divergence measures. The main research objective of the article is to assess the divergence in the distribution of household equivalent disposable income in Poland in the years 2005–2013. The data used in the analysis come from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

Open access

Ewa Korcelli-Olejniczak and Filip Piotrowski

Abstract

In the paper patterns of social interaction are examined, as shaped by an inflow of new residents to an inner-city subarea characterized by a low socio-economic status and featuring ethnic homogeneity. The empirical material is derived from a set of semi-structured interviews conducted by the authors with the area’s inhabitants, and with representatives of local governance arrangement and initiatives. The analysis is based on the concepts of social hyper-diversity, social networks, the concept of place and the research on gentrification. Sub-categories of residents are distinguished by referring to both functional and emotional types of social relations they enter into. The findings point at the formation of networks of integrative nature, mostly such that are supported by the use of common urban space, across the social categories identified, but also to limits and obstacles to social integration, both general and those specific to the case study area.

Open access

Magdalena Achrem, Lidia Skuza, Anna Kalinka, Izabela Szućko, Ewa Filip, Renata Słominska-Walkowiak and Stanisława Maria Rogalska

Plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses and they respond to them in different ways. Ambient temperature is among the most important environmental cues that directly influence plant growth and yield. Research in recent years has revealed that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in plants' response to temperature stress. Changes in gene expression evoked by stress signals follow post-translational histone modifications, DNA methylation, histone variant incorporation, and the action of chromatin remodeling factors and Polycomb group proteins. The majority of epigenetic modifications induced by temperature stress are reversible in nature; thus, chromatin returns to its previous state after the stress has passed. Some modifications seem stable, however, due presumably to so-called stress memory. Epigenetic modifications can be inherited through mitosis and meiosis. By dint of epigenetic memory, plants can more efficiently respond to future stressful conditions, thereby increasing their potential for environmental adaptation. Recognition of the epigenetic mechanisms that take part in plants' response to changes of ambient temperature will increase our understanding of adaptations to stress conditions.

Open access

Magdalena Bryndza, Grzegorz Filip, Krzysztof Bartuś, Anna Chrapusta, Ewa Kobielska, Bogusław Kapelak and Radosław Litwinowicz

Abstract

We hereby present the case of a female patient with recurrent aortic aneurysms. In order to treat aneurysms of the ascending aorta, aortic arch and aneurysms of the aortic arch branches, the debranching procedure was used. Following the surgery, a deep sternal wound infection occurred characterised by impaired healing. The infection was treated with targeted antibiotic therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Open access

Filip Duda, Ewa Woźniak, Katarzyna Jereczek-Korzeniewska and Roman Cieślińsk

Abstract

The aim of paper is to present the diversity of water level fluctuations in degraded Baltic raised bogs. An attempt was made to answer the question how strong the diversity of fluctuations is both within each object and between two objects situated close to each other. Moreover, speed and value of the response of water level to atmospheric precipitation were analysed. The spatial scope of the paper covers two Baltic raised bogs in the lower part of the Łeba river valley: Czarne Bagno and Łebskie Bagno. The time scope covers years 2012-2014. The study found that both analysed bogs were a high dynamic in variation of groundwater level. Annual amplitudes of fluctuations in the water table was in the range of 28.4 to 77.9 cm (Łebskie Bagno) and of 45.6 to 105.0 cm (Czarne Bagno). It has been observed that lowering the water level on both peatlands always been recorded in the summer months, whilst the increase in the autumn, which lasted until spring. Retention and the water level on peatlands influenced primarily precipitation. Extreme meteorological conditions that make it less conspicuous is the variation resulting from factors such as location in different parts of the bog or type of degradation.