On Certain Analogies Between the Laws of Quantum Mechanics and Rules of an English Auction
It is a self-evident truth that nowadays a growing number of economic phenomena is described by means of physics methods. The most frequent theories derived from physics and applied to economy are: (1) the universal gravitation law and (2) the first as well as the second law of thermodynamics. The methods of static physics are applicable also to the theory of financial markets. In this case it is assumed that the financial market is composed of single participants interacting as a system of particles. Such approach is associated with a model of financial market otherwise known as a minority game. It is postulated that the process of securities and money allocation is performed on the basis of prices fluctuation, where - if a vast majority of investors tend to purchase goods or services - the sale constitutes a more profitable option, and vice versa. The players who end up on minority side win. At the end of the XX century the economy commenced to apply the laws of quantum mechanics. These laws proved to be useful, in particular when attempting to generalize game theory, which resulted in quantum games. The aim of the paper is to compare the rules and auction mechanisms with selected laws of quantum mechanics. This paper aims also to introduce the basic concepts of quantum mechanics to the process of economic phenomena modeling. Quantum mechanics is a theory describing a behaviour of microscopic objects and is grounded on the principle of wave-particle duality. It is assumed that quantum-scale objects at the same time exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. The key role in quantum mechanics is played by: (1) the Schrödinger equation describing the probability amplitude for the particle to be found at a given position and at a given time, as well as (2) the Heisenberg uncertainty principle stating that a certain pair of physical properties may not be simultaneously measured to arbitrarily high precision.