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  • Author: Eva Benková x
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Abstract

This paper is focused on the impacts of alkaline and metal deposition on soil and vegetation in the immission field of magnesium factory Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia). Soil samples and the foliage of vegetation were obtained from the Jelšava-Lubeník area with specific alkaline pollutants. The examined area is one of the most devastated regions of Slovakia. From the point of view of environmental regionalization, it belongs to an environmentally damaged area of Category 3. The total content of heavy metals in the soil and vegetation (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Mg) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Soil reaction was determined in a solution of 0.01 M CaCl2. Vegetation was assessed by the Braun-Blanquet scale. In conclusion, we can say that spray particles of free magnesium oxide (MgO) strongly influence soil reaction, diversity, and vegetation cover. The research showed that the investigated sites were mostly strongly alkaline; the contents of Cr, Mn and Mg were over the toxicity limit, while the measured values of Pb and Zn did not exceed the limits set by the law. The values that measured significantly above the set limit show contamination that can be considered harmful and toxic. In the monitored species, that is, Agrostis stolonifera, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis, an over-limit content of Pb and Zn and toxic contents of Mg and Mn were found.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to compare the degree of accumulation of risky metals by seeds and aboveground biomass of five amaranth cultivars cultivars (Golden Giant, Rawa, Annapurna, Oscar Blanco, Koniz), as well as to assess the metal input extent in system soil-plant. The soil of amaranth cultivation was uncontaminated with the exception of Cd and Pb contents, those were 40% and 10% higher than limits given for the soil extract by aqua regia and by NH4NO3, respectively. In seeds of all investigated amaranth cultivars the maximal allowed amounts for Cd and Pb were by 60-100% and 25-200% (respectively) exceeded. In aboveground amaranth biomass 0.17-12.25 fold higher amounts of heavy metals were determined in comparison to amaranth seeds. Our results confirm, that amaranth seeds and leaves as food raw materials could represent a risk to the health of the consumer from the aspect of high Cd and Pb amounts. Because of the ability to produce abundance of biomass and at the same time to accumulate high amounts of dangerous heavy metals amaranth could be used as a potential plant for a soil phytoremediation. The results confirmed the ability of amaranth to accumulate metals even from relatively „clean“ soil