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  • Author: Eugeniusz Grela x
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Open access

Sandra Sobolewska and Eugeniusz R. Grela

Abstract

Inulin or plant materials containing this polysaccharide are deemed interesting additives to feed mixtures for pigs. The experiment was conducted with 120 weaners, hybrids of (PLW × PL) × Duroc breeds with the initial body weight of 30.0±0.5 kg, which were divided into 5 feeding groups. Inulin was added to feed mixtures in the following forms: 2% inulin obtained from chicory roots with two extraction methods: water (group II) and water-alcohol (group III), and 4% powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (group IV) or from chicory roots (group V). Body weight of the animals and feed intake were controlled at two-week intervals, and carcasses were analysed postslaughter. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi muscle of fatteners. Additional measurements were made for pH value, electrical conductivity and colour (CIE L*a*b* system) of fresh and thermally-treated meat samples. The highest body weight gains were recorded in group IV (powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers) and group II (water additive of inulin). Dietary inclusion of both types of powders contributed to decreased thickness of backfat. The study showed also the effect of adding inulin or inulin-producing materials on the quality of raw and cooked pork. Significant differences between the control and experimental groups were demonstrated for hardness, chewiness and gumminess of cooked meat. The highest colour saturation (L* and b*) and hue value were noted in raw loin of the fatteners administered feed mixtures with inulin from water-alcohol extraction. Inclusion of 2% inulin preparation with differing degrees of polymerization (water or water-alcohol extraction) or inulin-producing materials (topinambur or chicory powder) in fattener diets is likely to improve animal performance, but the application of Jerusalem artichoke appears to be more justified.

Open access

Katarzyna Ognik, Krzysztof Patkowski and Eugeniusz R. Grela

Abstract

The experiment was conducted on lambs of the Polish Lowland sheep (PLS) and a synthetic BCP line. The redox potential was assessed in blood of lambs with different genotype and sex, which were fed feed mixtures with various contents of a proteinxanthophyll (PX) concentrate from alfalfa (1.5% and 3%). The 1.5% addition of PX concentrate to feed stimulated the response of the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the lambs to a greater extent than the 3% addition. The study showed that sex of the lambs had no significant effect on changes in the redox parameters of blood. The PLS genotype of lambs determined higher values of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant potential of plasma (FRAP), malondialdehyde, and vitamin C than the BCP genotype. Along with the growth of the lambs, a descending tendency was observed in SOD and catalase levels, and an ascending tendency in FRAP value.

Open access

Krzysztof Pietrzak and Eugeniusz R. Grela

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the feed additive alfalfa protein concentrate (APC), on pig health. The trial involved 40 crossbred gilts and 40 crossbred castrates (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White) × Duroc of 29.0 ± 0.5 kg initial body weight. Allocation of experimental animals was into four treatment groups: the control group (C) was fed standard mixtures, without APC addition; group E-15 was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% APC; and groups E-30 and E-30P were fed diets with 3.0% APC inclusion. There were two feeding systems. In the first system, animals of groups C, E-15, and E-30 were fed continuously with suitable mixtures. The second feeding system was used in group E-30P where animals received the experimental or control mixture alternating at two-week intervals. The addition of APC supplement to diets significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) red blood cell indices, i.e. haematocrit (Ht), red blood cell count (RBC), and haemoglobin concentration (Hb) in growing and finishing periods. The analysis of enzyme activity demonstrated a markedly higher activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and especially alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the blood plasma of pigs fed APC supplement. This increase may indicate a negative impact of APC on the animal’s liver. A positive effect of dietary APC on blood lipid parameters was associated with a decreased level of total cholesterol and reduced low-density lipoprotein fraction. Analysis of the haematological and biochemical blood indices demonstrated that APC additive may affect animal health.

Open access

Krzysztof Pietrzak and Eugeniusz R. Grela

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of different levels of alfalfa protein concentrate (APC) supplementation on pig performance, carcass value and meat quality. The experiment was conducted on 50 crossbred pigs (PL × PLW) × Duroc of 29.0±0.5 kg initial body weight, which were divided into four treatment groups. Control (C) group was fed standard mixtures, groups E15 and E30 were fed with 1.5% or 3.0% APC additive, respectively. In group E30P the animals received feed including 3.0% APC for 14 days, followed by 14 treatment-free days. The production results were based on AGD, FCR, FI. Some slaughter traits and carcass value were measured. Determinations were carried out for physicochemical properties of fresh and thermally treated m. longissimus. The tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver, heart) were collected to analyze the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content. The recorded ADG was by 4.8% higher and FCR by 4.3% lower in E30P group as compared to control. The loin eye area was larger than in group C by 7.0% and by 8.3% in groups E30 and E30P, respectively. Carcass meatiness was also higher in groups E30 and E30P as compared to control, by 5.0% and 5.6%, respectively. The higher (P≤0.05) TPA parameters (hardness, chewiness and gumminess), as compared to control, was characteristic of the meat from animals receiving 3.0% APC. The lowest cholesterol content in the tissue samples (backfat, m. longissimus, liver) was recorded in group E30 (1.01, 0.51, 3.19 mg/g, respectively). Better fatty acid composition in backfat and m. longissimus was observed after 3.0% APC introduction into fatteners diet.

Open access

Marian Flis, Eugeniusz R. Grela and Dariusz Gugała

Abstract

Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

Material and Methods: Boar and porcine trichinosis epizootic analysis was based on General Veterinary Inspectorate data from RRW-6 bulletins. The epidemiological situation was evaluated on the basis of the data supplied by the Department of Epidemiology of the National Institute of Hygiene - National Institute of Public Health. The wild boar hunting harvest and population dynamics were estimated, as these animals remain the basic infection source for humans. Population size and harvest data were obtained from hunting statistics.

Results: The study timeframe showed an almost 2.5-fold increase in Trichinella infection cases in wild boars but a significant decline in human cases. In the domestic pig, the incidence rate did not exceed 0.00037%. The highest infection risk exists in West Pomerania, Greater Poland, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Provinces. Over the study period, the wild boar population increased more than 1.5-fold, while the hunting harvest more than tripled. During the last two seasons the total hunt surpassed 100% of the spring population.

Conclusion: Wild boar management by increasing the hunting take of the annual population growth should limit that growth and decrease the take in the future. Thereby, over some years intra-species trichinosis spread should reduce, for a substantial safety gain for wild boar meat.

Open access

Ewa Hanczakowska, Barbara Niwińska, Eugeniusz R. Grela, Karol Węglarzy and Krzysztof Okoń

Abstract

The effect of supplementing the standard piglet diet containing sodium butyrate with glutamine and/or glucose on the structure of the piglet digestive tract and the small intestine epithelium, acidity and volatile fatty acid content of its digesta was investigated. The free amino acids level, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in the blood were also analysed. The experiment was performed on 156 piglets (15 litters) allocated to 5 experimental groups, 3 litters in each. Group I (C, negative control) received a basal mixture with no supplement. Group II (SB, positive control) was fed the same basal diet containing additionally 3 g of sodium butyrate per kg. Group III and IV, besides sodium butyrate, received additionally 10 g of glutamine (GT) or glucose (GC), respectively. The last group V received all these supplements, i.e. SB+GT+GC (3, 10, 10 g per kg, respectively). At 60 days of age, the piglets (6 animals from each group) were slaughtered and their intestines were measured and weighed. The piglets in group SB+GT+GC receiving all the supplements grew slightly faster than the others, and at the end of the experiment the differences in body weight were significant. The total intestinal mass of the piglets fed with glucose or all the supplements was significantly higher than that of the piglets receiving glutamine but there was no significant difference in the total length of intestines. There was also no significant difference in acidity of chyme along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Digesta in the jejunum of both control groups (C, SB) contained significantly more SCFA than the remaining groups. In the caecum their content in the negative control and the group fed with all supplements was significantly higher when compared to the butyrate and glucose group. In the duodenum villus height was similar in all the groups but in the jejunum it was significantly higher in the group receiving all supplements than in other groups. Free amino acids level was lowest in the piglets receiving glucose but there was no difference between the remaining groups. The lowest level of IGF-1 was found in the same group and this difference was significant when compared with remaining groups, except C. It is concluded that glutamine and glucose, when given together with sodium butyrate, improve the structure of piglet jejunum epithelium and average body weight gains. A supplement of glucose significantly lowers free amino acid content and IGF-1 level in piglet blood.

Open access

Eugeniusz R. Grela, Krzysztof Pietrzak, Sandra Sobolewska and Piotr Witkowski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing inulin and inulin with garlic extract to pig diets on performance, carcass traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle. The experiment was carried out on 48 crossbred [(PL × PLW) × Duroc] fattening pigs with an initial body weight of 30.0 ± 0.5 kg, which were allocated to 3 groups: I (control), II (3% inulin) and III (3% inulin + 500 ml garlic extract added to 1000 l of drinking water). The pigs whose diets were supplemented with inulin or inulin and garlic achieved significantly (P≤0.05) higher daily weight gains compared to control. Supplemental inulin and water extract of garlic significantly (P≤0.05) lowered cholesterol content in blood and longissimus muscle. The highest level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was established in the longissimus muscle from pigs in group III.

Open access

Daniel Korniewicz, Eugeniusz Grela, Jan Matras, Paweł Gajewczyk, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Adolf Korniewicz and Krystian Antkowiak

The Effect of Decreased Protein Levels in Sow Diets on Nitrogen Content of Faeces and Physiological Parameters of Blood

The research material consisted of 42 sows divided into 3 feeding groups, 14 individuals in each group, which received feed mixtures with different protein levels. Protein and amino acid levels in the control group were in accordance with recommendations contained in Polish standards. The level of protein in experimental groups was decreased by 10 and 20%, respectively, and the levels of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan were adjusted to those of the control group. During the gestation and lactation periods all sows were fed individually. The content of dry matter, nitrogen, fibre, fat and ash was determined in samples of faeces collected at 60 and 105 days of pregnancy, and the total nitrogen content was assessed in urine. Blood from sows was collected on day 14 of lactation, and indices of protein, fat transformation and mineral components content were determined in blood serum. The results of the analysis of faeces and urine prove that pregnant sows from the experimental groups excreted 7% and 10% less nitrogen in faeces, and 18% and 23% less urine in faeces. The reduced protein level in feed mixtures did not significantly influence the content of dry matter, fibre and ash in faeces. A significant decrease in the content of total protein, globulins, urea and an increase in cholesterol level was observed in the blood serum of sows from both experimental groups. No influence of the reduced protein level in feed on the content of mineral compounds in blood serum or haematological parameters of the sows' blood was noted.

Open access

Eugeniusz R. Grela, Sandra Sobolewska, Edyta Kowalczuk-Vasilev and Wacław Krasucki

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers) on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters) allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control) - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively), and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants), significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level) and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.