Introduction: According to last years' research, periodontopathogens may have a negative impact on treatment options in patients with periodontal lesions. However, not all infected sites suffer periodontal destructions, which can be explained on the assumption that only a limited number of pathogens present in a sufficient amount, are capable of affecting the periodontal tissue. Thermal cycling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a new technique used for the identification and quantification of periodontopathogenic bacteria. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of periodontal pathogens, and to evaluate the amount of microbacterial pathogens in the periodontal pockets of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for a more predictable result.
Material and methods: A total amount of 32 subgingival samples were collected from periodontal pockets ≥6 mm in 8 patients. Clinical examinations, periapical radiographs and periodontal screenings were performed. Only patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were included in the study. PCR and DNA hybridization-based identification were performed by paper-point sampling using a micro-IDent plus, Hain Lifescience Germany kit.
Results and Discussions: Results showed that bacterial load may be connected to disease progression. The prevalence of the periodontopathogenic bacteria Actinobacillus a. was established in 42.8% of cases, P. Gingivalis in 71.42%, P. Intermedia 57.14%, Bacteroides F. was found in 85.71% of cases, Treponema D. in 100% of cases. Extremely high bacterial loads were recorded for Actinobacillus a., Bacteroides F. and Prevotella I.
Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) is a major concern regarding periodontal status after nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess this sequel by a systematic review of published data. For assessment, we performed an electronic search of one database for comprehensive data, using keywords in different combinations: “root resorption”, “periodontics” and “nonsurgical orthodontic treatment”. We supplemented the results searching by hand in published journals and we cross-referenced with the accessed articles. Patients included in the results presented a good general health status, with no previous history of OIEARR and no other associated pathologies. Finally, twenty-three studies were selected and included in this review. A high prevalence (69–98%) and moderate severity of OIEARR (<5 mm and <1/3 from original root length) were reported. No difference in root resorption was found regarding the sex of the patients. A moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption was found. Also, a mild correlation regarding antero-posterior apical displacement and root resorption was found.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common digestive disorder, which occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach returns into the esophagus to some extent, reaching the mouth, thereby increasing the frequency of dental erosion and caries. Since saliva plays a huge role in oral homeostasis, it is important to examine the role of this parameter in the appearance of the above mentioned oral lesions. The aim of our study was evaluate the oral condition of children suffering from reflux disease and to assess the relationship between salivary pH and the incidence of dental erosion and caries. In this prospective study we examined 25 children diagnosed with GERD, referred for hospitalization. Bedside intra-oral examination (DMFT index, gingival index) and strip method pH value determination was performed. We observed that patients with low pH values had increased caries frequency, and dental erosion was also noticeable. Statistical significance was determined comparing the DMFT index in groups with different pH values. We concluded that the high number of erosions is closely related to gastroesophageal reflux disease, as a consequence of the low pH value, which represents the main cause of oral manifestations in GERD.
The craniofacial skeleton in the growing child is responsive to changing functional demands and environmental factors. Orthopedic modification of facial bones through the application of constant forces over long periods of time has been a mainstay of orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic therapy.
Aim of the study
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pharyngeal structures after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) and compare them with those after using a removable mandibular advancement device (MAD).
Material and methods
In order to accomplish function we modified the pattern of neuromuscular activity throught mandible forward position.
This finding shows that maxillary deficiency and mandibular retrognathism have been reportedly linked to OSA as both etiologic factors and sequelae of prolonged mouth breathing during the period of growth, these illustrate the potential interaction between alteration in respiratory function and craniofacial morphology.
Craniofacial anatomic defects, including inferior displacement of the hyoid bone, larger gonial angle, smaller anterior cranial base, altered anterior and posterior facial heights, and mandibular deficiency, have been suggested as predisposing factors for upper airway obstruction during sleep. Cephalometry has been used extensively in the fields of orthodontics and anthropology to record craniofacial form. Recently, it has been also suggested that cephalometry could be an adjunctive procedure for assessing craniofacial patterns associated with OSAS.
Estimating efficacy of rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular advanced in the treatment of paediatric SDB. This might provide alternatives to primary treatments and/or enhance interdisciplinary treatment planning for the children suffering from OSA. The relationships between maxillofacial malocclusions and upper airway volumes were investigated. Literature studies on the association of upper airway narrowing with dento-skeletal malocclusions have been confirmed by us for the group of patients studied.
Developmental disabilities exist in children and adolescents, enabling them to live an independent and self-governing life, requiring special health related services. We are intended to inform dental professionals in planning and implementing a dental treatment for people with developmental disabilities. Cerebral palsy is defined as being a group of motor abnormalities and functional impairments that affect muscle coordination, and characterized by uncontrolled body movements, intellectual disabilities, balance-related abnormalities or seizure disorders. These patients can be successfully treated in normal dental practices, but because they have problems with movements, care must be tailored accordingly. Down syndrome, a very common genetic disorder, is usually associated with different physical and medical problems, intellectual disabilities, and a developmental delay. These patients can be treated with success in dental offices, this way making a difference in the medical care for people with special needs. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Self-injurious behavior, obsessive routines and unpredictable body movements can influence dental care. Because of the coexisting conditions (epilepsy or intellectual disability), one can find this people among the most challenging to treat. There is a need of greater awareness, focus and education in the field of the unique and complex oral health care that people with disabilities need. Making a difference their oral health positively influences an already challenged existence. According to the ethical principles, patients with developmental disabilities should be treated equitably depending on their necessities.