Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Andrea Komlósi, Erzsébet Varga and Nóra Papp
To complete the wide range of studies on chemical composition and pharmacological potential of the fruit of Ribes nigrum and Ribes rubrum, this work aimed to perform a comparative morpho-anatomical characterization of the fruits of both species and complete previously records of black currant as frequently studied species. Microslides of fruits were made with rotation microtome, and then cross sections were stained with toluidine blue. Documentation and evaluation were carried out in microphotos. In R. rubrum, the epidermis cells are ovoid to round, while those of R. nigrum are rectangular to almost round. Under the epidermis, in both fruits, there are two layers of oval hypodermal cells. Underneath the hypodermal layers, parenchyma cells of different size with thin walls and scattered collateral closed bundles were detected. The seeds are embedded in a gelatinous sheath having large thin-walled cells. Endocarp separates the arillar tissue from parenchyma cells, in addition, a gap can be found among these layers, endocarp, arillar tissue, and seeds. The seed coat consists of sclerenchyma cells in both species. In conclusion, histological differences and similarities were described in the fruits of the selected Ribes species, highlighted the first morpho-anatomical description of the berry of Ribes rubrum.
Alexandra Groșan, Ruxandra Ștefănescu, Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Sigrid Eşianu and Daniela Lucia Muntean
Prunella vulgaris L. belongs to the genus Prunella, Lamiaceae family, Nepetoideae subfamily. In Romania, the genus Prunella includes Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella grandiflora (L.) Jacq and Prunella laciniata L.. Amongst these, Prunella vulgaris is of particular importance, having numerous pharmacological actions. The purpose of this study is to analyze macroscopically and microscopically the main characters by which Prunellae spica can be identified and distinguished from other fruit-spikes from species of the Lamiaceae family.
Ruxandra Emilia Ştefănescu, Sigrid Eșianu, Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Anca Mare, Bianca Tudor and Maria Titica Dogaru
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess storage effects on anthocyanin and total polyphenol content in different bilberry and blueberry extracts and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of these extracts. Materials and methods: Total phenolic content, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were determined in the first month and after three months storage of berries at either -20 °C or -50 °C. Two different solvents were used (methanol and 50% ethanol). Antibacterial activity was determined for the 3 months stored fruits using a microdilution method and was expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: There were significant differences between the concentration in the first month and after three months storage in both types of fruit extracts. Regarding the extracting solvent, we noticed that total phenols were better extracted with 50% ethanol, while the total monomeric anthocyanin content was higher in the methanolic extracts. No significant or slightly significant differences were observed between the fruits stored at -20 °C or -50 °C. Ethanolic extracts showed the highest scavenging activity. Good antibacterial activity was observed on gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: Storage conditions are an important factor that can influence chemical composition of fruits. Although freezing is a good option for preservation, our study showed a high decrease in the concentration of total phenols and anthocyanins after only three months. The fruits have shown a high antioxidant activity and a good antibacterial effect. Further studies are needed for better understanding the changes that can appear during the storage.