The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substances use as well as the characteristics of body image, self-image, narcissism and stress coping strategies in the group of male professional bodybuilders.
Material and method. The study comprised a group 30 male bodybuilders practising bodybuilding professionally for over 7 years and 30 men who did not practise any sport.
The following research methods were used in the study: Socio-demographic Questionnaire and Eating Disorders and Self-image Survey Questionnaire in Men designed by Pawłowska and Staniewicz, Coping with Stress Questionnaire by Janke, Erdmann, Boucsein, Narcissism Questionnaire by Deneke, Hilgenstock, Müller, Adjective Check List by Gough and Heilbrun in the authorised translation by Płużek.
Results. As compared to the control group, bodybuilders significantly more often use psychoactive agents and have a more negative body image and self-image and show intensified narcissism.
Conclusions: In comparison to the control group:
Significantly more bodybuilders use psychoactive agents: marijuana, amphetamine and ephedrine.
Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more negative body image related to the impression of having excessive fat tissue and not sufficient muscle tissue and intensified pursuing to obtain social acceptance.
Bodybuilders are characterised by a significantly more intensified need for dominance, aggression, competitiveness, breaking social rules, being rebellious, impulsive and confrontational.
Bodybuilders are characterised by significantly more intensified narcissistic traits.
Bodybuilders, while in a stressful situation, express compensatory conviction of having better than other people skills to cope with difficulties.
The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK) by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF) by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.
Introduction. Dependence on the Internet and online games is a growing problem worldwide. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between girls and boys as well as between adolescents living in urban vs. rural areas in regard to prevalence of playing online games, the amount of time devoted to playing games, the severity of symptoms of online gaming addiction, and preferences for game genres. Also, significant predictors of online game addiction in the studied group of young people were identified. Material and methods. The study involved 827 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. When it comes to 488 (60.02%) of them, they lived in the countryside and 325 (39.98%) in a city. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Online Gaming Addiction Questionnaire and the Disturbed Family Relations Questionnaire, all developed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Results. Statistically significant differences were found between girls and boys and between adolescent urban and rural dwellers in prevalence of playing online games, severity of online gaming addiction symptoms, preferences for specific game genres, and the amount of time spent playing online games. Conclusions. 1. Significantly more boys than girls played online games. Boys devoted more time to playing and had more severe symptoms of addiction to online games. 2. Adolescent city dwellers spent significantly more time playing online games, mainly to relieve boredom and experience new sensations, than young people living in the countryside. 3. Major predictors of online gaming addiction included male gender, urban residence, domestic violence, mother’s child-raising rules being challenged by the father, and the child’s sense of responsibility for his/her parents.
The aim of the present study was to compare the concentrations of KYNA, 3-OH-KYN and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with depression vs. healthy controls as well as in patients with depression treated pharmacologically vs. those treated using ECT. We also evaluated the relationship between the concentrations of KYNA, 3-OH-KYN and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and clinical improvement measured on the MADRS scale in patients treated pharmacologically and those treated with ECT.
Subjects and methods: The study group comprised 29 patients aged 28 to 60 years with a diagnosis of a major depressive episode. Eleven of the patients received pharmacological treatment and 18 were treated with ECT.
Patients were assayed for serum levels of KYNA and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Clinical improvement was measured on the MADRS depression rating scale and the clinical global impression (CGI) scale.
Results: Significant differences were found in KYNA levels between depressive patients and healthy controls. Pharmacological treatment significantly contributed to the increase in KYNA levels and ECT – to the increase in TNF-α levels in depressive patients.
Depressive patients have significantly lower concentrations of KYNA than healthy individuals
Depressive patients who have undergone pharmacological treatment have significantly higher KYNA concentrations than before treatment.
Depressive patients who have undergone ECT treatment have significantly lower TNF-α concentrations than before treatment.
High pre-treatment levels of IL-6 are associated with a lower MADRS improvement index in pharmacologically treated patients with depression.
Introduction. Social networking sites are virtual online communities, where users can design personal profiles available for public assessment, interact with friends, and meet with others, based on shared interests. SNS (social networking sites) have been defined as a “global consumer phenomenon” because they have been experiencing a sharp increase in popularity and use over the last decade. SNS websites, such as Facebook, are becoming increasingly popular, however, little is known about psychosocial variables, which are risk factors for excessive use of these websites.
Aim. The aim of the work was to characterize personality traits (self-image characteristics, ways of coping with stress and aggression intensity) of youth who have a profile on a social networking site.
Material and methods. The study included a total of 590 individuals from 16 to 18 years of age. Among the subjects, a group of 51 people without a profile was identified and 539 – with a profile on a social networking site. The group of teenagers was examined by means of statistical methods: a socio-demographic survey by the authors’ own design, H. G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun’s Adjective Check List (ACL), Stress Coping Questionnaire (SCQ) constructed by W. Janke, G. Erdmann, K. W. Kallus, in the Polish language compilation by E. Januszewska, Buss-Durkee Hostility – Gild Inventory, developed in Polish by Choynowski.
Results. Statistically significant differences were found in terms of self-image features, ways of coping with stress and activity displayed on the Internet between the youth who had and did not have a profile on the social networking site.
Conclusions. Significantly more young people who have a profile on a social networking site share their personal data with strangers met through the Internet, use internet services and make purchases online, compared to the youth who do not have this profile. Young people with a profile on a social portal are characterized by greater timidity, difficulties in coping with stress and everyday tasks, less perseverance, entrepreneurship, effectiveness in the implementation of tasks, less self-confidence, less autonomy, responsibility and tolerance in comparison with young people who do not have a profile. Young people who have a social media profile are more likely to turn to other people in a stressful situation to request support and advice.
This article describes the psychometric properties of the Disease Perception Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Obrazu Choroby, KOCh, in Polish). An original version of KOCh consisting of 99 items was used to survey a group of 161 subjects aged 25 to 85 years. On the basis of factor analysis, four factors (scales) were identified which pointed to the subjects’ different perceptions of their disease: (1) Disease as a Threat, (2) Disease as a Weakness, (3) Disease as a Task, and (4) Disease as a Benefit. Items with the lowest factor loadings and the lowest factor specificity indexes were rejected. The factors identified explained 38% of the total variance. The final version of the KOCh questionnaire consisted of 57 items. The coefficients of reliability for the individual factors were Cronbach’s alpha = 0.94 for Disease as a Threat, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 for Disease as a Weakness, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84 for Disease as a Task, and Cronbach’s alpha = 0.85 for Disease as a Benefit
Introduction. Alcohol dependence syndrome constitutes a serious social problem not only due to personal and health consequences suffered by addicted individuals but also by their family members and, in particular, by children.
Aim. The aim of the study was to make a comparison of self-image, narcissism, methods of coping with stress and aggression in people addicted to alcohol who were raised by parents addicted and not addicted to alcohol.
Material and methods. 118 individuals addicted to alcohol were examined. There were 53 patients raised by non-addicted parents and 55 by parents addicted to alcohol. The average age of the group was 41.20 (SD=10.85) and the average period of alcohol addiction was 9.03 (SD=6.26) years. We used the following research tools: the Sociodemographic Survey of own construction, Adjective Check List ACL by Gough and Heilbrun, the Questionnaire of Narcissism by Denke, Hilgenstock and Müller, the Coping with Stress Questionnaire by Janke, Erdmann and Boucsein and the Aggression Questionnaire by Buss-Perry.
Results. We found presence of statistically significant differences in respect of traits of self-image, narcissism, methods of coping with stress and severity of aggression in people addicted to alcohol who were raised by parents addicted and not addicted to alcohol.
Conclusions. 1. Alcohol addicted women who were raised by parents with alcohol dependence are characterised by more negative self-image, greater need for getting support, dependence, fear of negative assessment by other people, passive ways of coping with stress and aggression not directly expressed - in comparison to the women raised by not addicted parents. 2. Men raised by alcohol addicted parents are characterised by greater narcissism and more often expressed physical aggression in comparison to men raised by not addicted parents.
Introduction. Increased suicide rates, both among adults and adolescents, have been seen in Poland over recent years.
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of self-injury, suicide ideation, plans and attempts in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years.
Material and methods. The study encompassed the total number of 6883 individuals aged 13 to 19 years, 69% of them being girls and 31% - boys. All respondents lived in Lubelskie Province. The research was conducted using a questionnaire designed by the authors.
Results. In the group composed of 6883 adolescents living in Lublin Province, suicide ideation was reported by 47.65% of the respondents, suicide plans by 32.35%, suicide attempts were carried out by 10% of adolescents and self-injury by 24.91% of the respondents aged 13 to 19 years.
Conclusions. The greatest prevalence of suicide ideation, plans and attempts, as well as self-injuries, were recorded in the group of adolescents aged 17. The adolescents living in the urban areas are more likely to inflict self-injury than those living in rural areas. Furthermore, adolescents with suicidal tendencies, e.g. attempting suicide and self-injury, are more prone to alcohol and substance abuse. It needs emphasizing that many adolescents with suicidal tendencies, compared against those who did not carry them out, have past experience of psychological, physical and sexual violence in the family, have been raised by a single parent or in families, where one of the parents abused alcohol.
The aim of this paper was to determine differences and similarities between city dwelling teenagers aged 13–17 years who consumed/did not consume alcohol and their rural counterparts in regard to the severity of Internet addiction symptoms.
Participants and methods: The examined group consisted of 1,191 people (890 girls and 301 boys) aged 13–17 years. The following instruments were used in the study: a sociodemographic questionnaire designed by the present authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska.
Results: The results show that adolescents who consume alcohol, both those living in urban and rural areas, are characterized by statistically significantly more severe Internet addiction symptoms measured by KBUI as compared to their non-drinking peers.
Adolescents who consume alcohol, both urban and rural residents, are characterised by statistically significantly more severe symptoms of Internet addiction compared to their peers who do not consume alcohol.
Adolescents who live in a city and who consume alcohol are significantly more likely to use Internet pornography than their non-drinking peers.
Adolescents who live in urban areas are significantly more likely to use Internet pornography, play violent computer games and search for acceptance and understanding only in online interactions as compared to adolescents who do not consume alcohol.
Underage city-dwellers who consume alcohol are significantly more likely to use electronic mail, instant messaging and web pages compared to their rural peers.