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Emanuel Hurych

Self-competition versus Internal Competition

This paper attempts to draw attention to the problem of self-competition as a very specific and controversial type of competition and gives a proposal for division between self-competition and internal competition, both of them as special different forms of competition within one individual person.

This basis of the problem is inspired by the article On Competing Against Oneself (Howe, 2008) published in Sport, Ethics and Philosophy. Howe is engaged in the motive of competition which is usually called "self competition". She disagrees with Krein (2007) who argues that self-competition cannot be spoken about within adventure therapy because of the absence of competitors and the lack of repeatable measure of performance.

As a consequence of this question the contribution is focused on the relation between self-competition and individual challenge on the one hand and the phenomenon of experience on the other hand. The term of "internal competition" is suggested here and the differences between self-competition and internal competition are explained. The mentioned relation is understood as an equivalence which is accompanied by some concrete examples from the area of movement activities.

The aim of the essay is to show the complexity of the relationship between experience and competition motives. The other goal is to introduce the term of internal competition, as the phenomenon closely connected with experience. At least in some cases internal competition can be considered as the essential part of experience. While self-competition is very closely connected with the result of the activity and level of the performance, internal competition is far more focused on the process and depth of the experience.

Open access

Ivo Jirásek and Emanuel Hurych

Pain and Suffering in Sport

Pain is an authentic part of humanity. This text deals with the topic of pain within the context of sports. It compares the agon of war to the agon of sports. Here, pain is considered as a physical phenomenon, as a cultural and social construct as well as a meaningful phenomenon. Another issue addressed in this paper is how pain is presented as an authentic component of performing sports. A loss of authenticity in sports is mentioned in connection with the prevalence of injuries. Special attention is paid to the topic of death, which is understood as being a part of the horizon of pain. The last part of the article focuses on crises in professional sports and asks about the meaning of pain and suffering in sports.

Open access

Ivo Jirásek, Josef Oborný and Emanuel Hurych

Summary

The philosophical concept of hermeneutics presents the opposite pole of human mental activities than positivism. Phenomenology, together with hermeneutics, also presents a kind of opposition to the positivistic reduction of learning the world. This paper focuses on the topic of authenticity of sport from these two (hermeneutic and phenomenological) approaches. As a basic theoretical platform Martin Heidegger’s book Time and Being is used. The authors develop a specific kind of categorization of the social groups engaged in sport events via the ancient concepts of “TECHNÉ ATHLETIKÉ” and “TECHNÉ GYMNASTIKÉ”. Two different phenomena: sport and “sport” are examined within the next part of the paper. There are some reasons mentioned in conclusions coming from the hermeneutic and phenomenological approach which help us to understand and accept the opinion that a kind of return to “techné gymnastiké” can support the authentic modes of being in human approach to sport.

Open access

Emanuel Hurych

Abstract

Authenticity is usually understood as something similar to truth, or as a kind of ability of one “to be oneself”. However, for the philosophical approach, authenticity presents a more complex and complicated term. This conception has been followed in existentialism and fundamental ontology, where it has been examined and analyzed in depth (especially by Martin Heidegger). This paper deals with the search for some potentiality of the authentic modus of being through the practice of some forms of sport tourism. We selected and described four model types of sport tourism activities. Then, we designed and selected some factors of authenticity. The evaluation of authenticity within the selected activities according to the factors was applied in a two-round process of evaluation. The results of the process are explained and discussed. In conclusion, authenticity is presented as a concept that is not strongly influenced by outer settings, but is rather strongly connected with personal attunement and individual (or group) perception of the outer world.

Open access

Ivo Jirásek, Emanuel Hurych and Josef Oborný

Abstract

The paper deals with the hermeneutical approach to active human movement and sport. This topic has been more frequently examined in literature since 2010. This paper focuses on holism and harmony within the hermeneutics of sport. Some specific holistic approaches based on different viewpoints are described here. The key task of the middle part of the paper is to question and search for authentic meanings in sport. In this context, the theory of kinestructs and kinascepts by Eleaonor Metheny is briefly explained. The final part of the paper attempts to summarize possibilities for uncovering a deeper sense of human movement in the context of holism.