Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author: Elwira Żmudzka x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Elwira Żmudzka

Contemporary Climate Changes in the High Mountain Part of the Tatras

The purpose of this study was to determine the contemporary changes of precipitation and nival conditions in the high-mountain area of Tatras. Main features of thermal climate changes are the background of this investigation. The study makes use of the daily data from the weather station on Kasprowy Wierch Mt. from the years 1966-2006. Various climate characteristics were considered. The increase of the air temperature is not accompanied by significant changes in precipitation conditions. The signs of the more continentality climate features are also visible. The warming and a slight decrease in precipitation and the evolution of circulation conditions significantly influence the length of the period with the snow cover and not significantly its depth.

Open access

Elwira Żmudzka

Abstract

This article presents the results of studies conducted on the variability of thermal and precipitation conditions in Poland in the second half of the 20th century, especially taking into consideration periods which were unfavorable for agricultural production. Averaged spatial temperatures and precipitation totals from consecutive years 1951 to 2000 were used. A significant increase in spring temperatures was noted, while the winters also became warmer. This had a significant effect upon the change of the thermal vegetation period’s duration. No changing trends were noted with regard to the amount of precipitation.The analysis of the seasonal structure during the anomalous years, with regard to temperature and the amount of precipitation, made it possible to pinpoint years particularly unfavorable for agricultural production. There was a certain repeatability of unfavorable conditions, tied to the existence of a relatively stable 8-year cycle of temperature change, which was especially noticeable during the wintertime. During the last two decades of the 20th century, high temperature values, occurring also in the summertime, in combination with insufficient precipitation, contributed to the occurrence of dry spells and even periods of drought. The occurrence of dry spells during the vegetation period and the extreme shortening of the vegetation period have a significant effect upon the amount of grain crop production.

Open access

Krzysztof Olszewski and Elwira Żmudzka

Open access

Elwira Żmudzka

Abstract

In this paper, results of research concerning circulation conditions favouring the occurrence of clear and cloudy days in Poland are presented. An analysis of the mean pressure field over North Atlantic and Europe on such days was performed, differences between the mean pressure on such days and the mean pressure from all the days of the period 1966-2000 were determined. The pressure field was characterised by mean daily values taken from grid nodes from the area with φ 30°–70°N and λ 40°W–60°E (NCEP/NCAR database). The relation between the amount of cloudiness over Poland and pressure was estimated by means of linear correlation coefficient.

Open access

Elwira Żmudzka

Abstract

The purpose of the report is to determine trends in thermal conditions in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains. The results of studies were compared with the results of analogous analyses, carried out for the area of lowland Poland. The study makes use of the data from the weather stations in Zakopane and on Kasprowy Wierch Mt. from the years 1951-2006, mainly from 1966-2006. The thermal conditions in lowland Poland was determined on the basis of the area-averaged time series (45 stations). Various thermal characteristics were considered. The increase of the rate of upward trend in temperature at the turn of the 21st century, as well as the change of the seasonal distribution of the warming in comparison with the preceding long-term periods, have been documented. Symptoms of increase of the thermal continentality have also been observed.

Open access

Elwira Żmudzka

Abstract

Analysis of time series was performed of cloudiness, air temperature and precipitation for the years 1951–2000, the data used representing lowland Poland. The properties of the temporal course of these elements of climate and the interrelations between their variability in time have been determined. The strength of dependence of precipitation and temperature upon the magnitude of cloudiness in the annual cycle has been assessed with the linear correlation coefficient. The essential climate-forming role of cloudiness has been confirmed. The magnitude of cloudiness over Poland explains up to 70% of variability of temperature and precipitation. These interrelations are the strongest in the warmer half of the year. Atmospheric circulation and cloudiness explain up to 85% of variability of the climate elements studied.

Open access

Elwira Żmudzka, Dariusz Woronko and Maciej Dłużewski

Abstract

Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.