Agima Ljaljević, Elvir Zvrko and Marija Stojiljković
Tobacco Use Among Youth: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Montenegro
Smoking is a burning healthcare and economy issue, especially in underdeveloped countries. The aim of this study was to determine the number of smokers among elementary school students in Montenegro and to assess the correlates of tobacco use. The study was done in 2003 using the World Health Organization Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Our data showed that children as young as ten years smoked. There were 3.6 % permanent smokers and one in three students (30.6 %) experimented with smoking. More than two thirds who smoked agreed that they should quit smoking, and three fourths tried to quit. This study has also shown that children talk too little about smoking in schools and are exposed to passive smoking at home and elsewhere. Activities to solve the elementary school smoking problem should include preventive programs to be introduced into regular school curricula because this is the only way to address the issue properly. In addition, legislation prohibiting indoor tobacco smoking should be implemented rigorously to protect children from passive smoking in public places.
Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (±3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.
Prevalence of Smoking and Other Smoking-Related Behaviours Among Students Aged 13 to 15 Years in Montenegro: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management.
This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it.
The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.