Objectives: the aim of the study was to identify predictive risk factors of the development of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP).
Materials and methods: We performed a bidirectional study in wich 177 patients diagnosed with CP with and without epilepsy have been selected for characteristics and risk factor comparison. We analyzed the history related to pregnancy and birth, gestational age, birth weight, fetal distress, the presence of neonatal convulsion, age of onset for the epilepsy, associated types of seizures, the response to anticonvulsant therapy and brain changes identified by Computer tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging examination.
Results: epilepsy was found in 91 (51.4%) patients, most frequently in quadriplegic form (76.2% vs 23.8%), OR:3.04, 95% CI:1.42-6.52, p-0.005. In this group, the most common were partial seizures (34.4%), epileptic encephalopathy like Lennox Gastaut and West type (62.5%), and also neonatal seizures. Eighty percent of on-term infants with neonatal seizures later developed epilepsy. Factors like fetal distress, low birth weight, cytomegalovirus infection, history of pathological pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of developing epilepsy. Imaging change, especially cerebral atrophy had the highest frequency (37.5% vs 16%) in pacients with epilepsy. 28 (30.8%) patients had resistance epilepsy, 13 (46.4%) of them having quadriplegia. Early onset of epilepsy constitutes a sign of severity of epileptic forms (OR:3.09, 95% CI:1.187-8.061, p-0.01).
Conclusions: The data are consistent with those in literature but is necessary following this study to clarify and support the assumption on preddictive factors and prognosis of epilepsy in this population.