Torleif Halkjelsvik and Elisabet Storvoll
Janne Scheffels, Inger Synnøve Moan and Elisabet Storvoll
INTRODUCTION - Parents are often warned about the negative consequences of drinking alcohol in the presence of their children, while surveys indicate that children fairly often see their parents drink and also being drunk. We applied a mixed method approach to explore attitudes towards parents’ drinking in the presence of their children, using (1) survey and (2) focus group data. In the analysis of the focus group data, we also addressed which consequences of parents’ drinking the participants emphasised, and how they reasoned for their opinions. The results were merged in order to compare, contrast and synthesise the findings from both data sets. METHODS - The data stem from a web survey among 18-69-year-old Norwegians (Study 1, N=2171) and from focus group interviews with 15-16-year-olds and parents of teenagers (Study 2, 8 groups, N=42). RESULTS - In both data sets, drinking moderately in the presence of children was mostly accepted, but attitudes became more restrictive with an increased drinking frequency and with visible signs of intoxication. The results from Study 2 showed also that definitions of moderation varied and that the participants used contextual factors such as atmosphere and occasion to define when drinking was acceptable and when it was not. In reflections on the importance of moderation, they emphasised parental responsibility for the family as a unit and parents’ immoderate drinking as posing a risk to children’s safety. The participants also underlined the importance of parental drinking in the alcohol socialisation process. CONCLUSION - Parents’ drinking in the presence of children was generally accepted as long as the drinking was moderate. The focus group data showed that definitions of moderation varied, and that social context also was used to define moderation.
Torleif Halkjelsvik and Elisabet E. Storvoll
AIMS - To estimate the proportion of the Norwegian population that according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines should be followed up by primary health care, based on three levels of risk drinking. We also investigated the relationship between risky drinking and demographic variables (gender, age and education). MATERIALS & METHODS - In 2012 and 2013 Statistics Norway conducted 4048 telephone interviews on a random sample of the population aged 16-79 (55.3% response rate). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a screening instrument for primary health care, was used to identify potential problem drinking. We used descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. RESULTS - Approximately 17% of the sample scored within the WHO-recommended limits for simple advice and/or further monitoring. Of these, 2% scored above the limit for the two most serious risk categories. Risky drinking was most prevalent among men, especially those aged 16-50. Among women, there was most risky drinking in the 16-30 age group. The regression analysis showed that age, gender and education predicted AUDIT sum scores. CONCLUSION - A large proportion scored within the least serious risk group, where simple advice to cut down on alcohol is the recommended measure. This group mostly consisted of younger respondents (16-30 years), and a large majority were men (age categories 20 and older). These are individuals who do not necessarily have an alcohol problem, but are at increased risk for negative consequences such as injury during intoxication, and/or developing misuse or dependence over time.
Torleif Halkjelsvik and Elisabet E. Storvoll
BAKGRUNN – Vi var interessert i andelen av befolkningen i Norge som ifølge Verdens Helseorganisasjon (WHO) sine retningslinjer burde få oppfølging av primærhelsetjenesten i henhold til tre ulike nivåer av risikodrikking. I tillegg undersøkte vi sammenhengen mellom risikofylt drikking og de demografiske variablene kjønn, alder og utdanning. MATERIALE OG METODE – I årene 2012 og 2013 gjennomførte Statistisk Sentralbyrå 4048 telefonintervjuer i et tilfeldig utvalg av befolkningen i alderen 16 til 79 år (svarprosent = 55,3 %). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), et screeninginstrument for primærhelsetjenesten, ble brukt til å kartlegge potensiell problemdrikking. Vi benyttet beskrivende statistikk og lineær regresjonsanalyse. RESULTATER – Omtrent 17 % av utvalget skåret innenfor grenseverdiene hvor WHO anbefaler enkel rådgivning og/eller videre oppfølging, Av disse var 2 % over grenseverdiene for de to alvorligste risikokategoriene. Det var mest risikofylt drikking blant menn, og spesielt menn i alderen 16 til 50 år. Blant kvinner var det mest risikofylt drikking i aldersgruppen 16 til 30 år. Regresjonsanalysen viste at alder, kjønn og utdanning predikerte AUDIT sumskårer. KONKLUSJON – En stor andel er innen den minst alvorlige risikogruppen, hvor enkle råd om å kutte ned på alkoholen har blitt foreslått som tiltak. Det er en stor overvekt av yngre (16 til 30 år) i denne gruppen, og fra aldersgruppen 20 år og eldre var det en stor overvekt av menn. Dette er individer som ikke nødvendigvis har et alkoholproblem, men som har økt risiko for negative konsekvenser som skader under beruselse, og/eller å utvikle misbruk eller avhengighet over tid.
Ingeborg Rossow, Marianne Bang Hansen and Elisabet Esbjerg Storvoll
AIMS - To examine whether the ban and complete removal of slot machines in Norway in 2007 may have led to: a) changes in gambling behaviour and changes in prevalence of problem gambling among adolescents, and b) changes in gambling behaviour among adolescent problem gamblers. DATA & METHODS - Two school surveys were conducted, one before (in 2006) and one after the intervention (in 2008), comprising students aged 13 to 18 years (net samples = 4,912 in 2006 and 3,855 in 2008). Identical measures of gambling behaviour and problem gambling were obtained in both surveys. RESULTS - After the intervention, a small proportion reported that they had changed their gambling behaviour, mainly in terms of having stopped gambling. Comparisons of self-reports of gambling behaviour showed that slot machine gambling had decreased significantly, while gambling on other games had increased, yet frequent gambling on any game had decreased after the intervention. However, the change in prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling differed across instruments. The prevalence of self-perceived gambling problems had decreased whereas the prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling as assessed by SOGS-RA had increased. Among at-risk and problem gamblers frequent gambling and perceived gambling problems were reported less frequently in 2008 compared to 2006. CONCLUSION - The ban and removal of slot machines in Norway was succeeded by a decrease in frequent gambling among adolescents in general as well as among at-risk and problem gamblers.