Background/Aim: Root resorption is one of the most common consequences of orthodontic treatment. However, its mechanism, etiology factors, diagnostic methods and the possibility of root repair remain controversial topics. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated review of the current literature concerning the orthodontically induced root resorption.
Material and Methods: A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus search engines covering the period January 1930 until June 2019 corresponding to articles investigating the mechanism, etiology, methods of interpretation of root resorption and the stages of root repair.
Results: The mechanism of orthodontically induced root resorption involves an interaction between several molecular signaling pathways, which result in the resorption of both cementum and dentin by odontoclasts/cementoclasts. Root resorption can be the result of both treatment and patient-related factors. The main risk factors include prolonged orthodontic treatments, heavy forces, specific tooth movements, method of force application, systemic/genetic factors and aberrant root morphology. Nevertheless, root resorption is repaired to some extend by cellular cementum.
Conclusions: Orthodontically root resorption is an unavoidable complication mainly due to its multifactorial etiology. However, its severity can be minimized with careful planning and radiographic monitoring.