Aim of the study is to present the technological process of obtaining cast iron with lamellar graphite for use in the manufacture of cylinder liners, and to identify the main alloying elements and track their influence on the mechanical properties of cast iron with lamellar graphite.
Also paper presents analysis of 20 batches of cast iron with lamellar graphite, which are made of cylinder liners, in terms of chemical composition and the mechanical properties.
After the analysis of the 20 castings of cast iron Fc 250 it is observed that: the increase in the carbon content shows a decrease of the tensile strength and hardness of the gray cast iron; the increase in silicon content shows a decrease in hardness and tensile strength. Decreasing the amount of graphite and especially the alloy of silicon iron lead to hardness increase 1% Si increases hardness by 50 HB). A statistical analysis has been performed on the data obtained that accounts for changes in alloying additions. A modeling and optimization of mechanical properties (tensile strength and hardness) was performed according to the percentages of carbon, silicon and manganese. Mathematical modeling found that the hardness and traction resistance of the cast iron decreased with the increase in carbon, silicon and manganese content.
The paper presents the study of internal defects resulting from the continuous casting of steels. The 50 samples were taken from a total of 20 continuously cast bits of different steel grades. The investigation of the causes of internal defects, shown on the analyzed samples, started from the assumption that the secondary metallurgy was performed correctly. The following internal defects have been evident: internal cracks (axial cracks, section cracks), central porosity and marginal punctuation impurities.
Refractory concretes based on aluminous cements are used with great success in areas where high temperatures are required. The mineralogical composition of the high alumina cement is the main factor which gives the physical and mechanical properties at high temperatures of refractory monolithic materials.
It is therefore desirable to use high alumina cements based on mineralogical compounds with high refractoriness, because in the end those beneficial properties can be found in the final product - refractory concrete.
The aim of this paper is to design, realize and characterize different compositions of high alumina cements based on mineralogical compounds with the highest refractory from the CaO-Al2O3 binary system (i.e. CA, CA2, and CA6), and to find ways of hydraulic activation of calcium hexa aluminate, also.
Following the sliding motion between two surfaces a heat release occures which leads to a changing of the mechanical properties of the surfaces in contact. Amongst the factors that influence the heat release one may name the loading, the velocity, the surface topography, the surface material, the lubrication and last but not the least, the environment.
The present paper proposes a computation model to determine the temperature in the working of a coupling to which the mechanical characteristics of the materials are not affected by changes which, at their turn, lead to undesired effects.
Non/oriented electrical sheets are sheets tailored to produce specific properties and are produced from Fe-Si or Fe-Si-Al alloys. Non-oriented electrical steel sheets are incorporated into a wide range of equipment, from the simplest domestic appliances to hybrid and pure electric vehicles. In studying about the magnetic, there have a lot of method can be used for the different experiment requirement such as measuring magnetic flux, nominal loss and other objectives.
During electrical steel processing, there are usually small variations in both chemical composition and thickness in the hot-rolled material that may lead to different magnetic properties for the same steel grade. Therefore, it is of great importance to know the effects of such variations on the final microstructure and magnetic properties of these steels. The purpose of this work was to study microstructural changes of the bands investigated during processing occurring siliceous strips with non-oriented grains. The second aim was to study the influence of grain size on the total magnetic losses at 1.0 T and 1.5 T. Materials 10 rolls intended to be processed into quality electrical steel M400-50A (according to EN 100027-1) were analyzed with metallographic microscope Neophet 32 and the magnetic characteristics was made with Epstein frame according IEC 6040/4-2, with an exiting current frequency of 50Hz at 1.5T and 1.0T induction after aging treatment of 225°C for 24 hours. Sample for light microscopy observation were prepared by polishing and etching in 5% Nital.
Calcium-phosphate cements is one of the most popular types of biomaterials, both due to their specific properties of self - setting and of their superior biocompatibility.
Although in general the phosphocalcic cements, which are the subject of the present paper, have somewhat lower mechanical properties than other biomaterials based on calcium and phosphorus, or even other dental cements of the same nature. The ceramic compositions presented in the present paper constitute a special category of biomaterials due to other notable advantages that characterize them. Thus, this category of materials is defined by a near-perfect adaptation to the surface of the biological tissue, as well as by a convenient resorption rate, processes followed by the generation of optimal bone formation. In this paper are presented principles of realization of the calcium-phosphate cements (raw materials and conditions of production), as well as the properties of these biomaterials, insisting, in particular, on the chemistry of the setting reactions. At the same time, informations regarding the possibilities of clinical use, such as implants are presented.
This article presents different solutions to reduce natural gas consumptions of the aluminum melting furnaces, through recovery of the heat from flue gases. In order to be able to analyze the recovery solutions, a mathematical model for energy balance of these furnaces was adapted. This mathematical model allows drawing up energy balances together with the main working technique and economical parameters of these types of furnaces, in actual conditions, and the same, under optimizing conditions, by applying recovery solutions.
The mathematical model which can elaborate energy balances for aluminum melting furnaces, was transposed in M. Excel based software, where the quantification of different solutions for natural gas consumption saving is possible. One of the applications of this computer software for an aluminum melting furnace, either for actual working conditions or per upgraded furnace by use an air pre-heater, materials pre-heater, or a regenerative burner system, is presented in this article.
In this presentation are evidenced instrumental characterization by Electronic Scanning Microscopy (SEM) equipped with EDS / WDS of aluminum alloys such 2024 alloy with multiple synergistic purposes as: acquisition of new knowledge, increase the amount of information obtainable about the material, increasing the efficiency and the quality of the tests, characterization of special destination alloys and assessing their conformity with the specified requirements. In this direction, it requires both the knowledge the test methods (theoretical basis, test method, procedure relating to the method, quality assurance testing) as well material characteristics investigated. These aspects are necessary for test system design, and preliminary interpretation of experimental results.
The development of polymeric materials offers new perspectives of science and technology due to their outstanding properties. These properties are obtained either due to the effect of dispersion polymers and their polymerization either due to their intervention in structure formation. They were prepared epoxy resin polymer concrete, Portland cement, coarse and fine aggregate and to evaluate the influence of resin dosage on microstructures and density of such structures reinforced concrete mixtures. The paper detailing the raw materials used in experimental works and structural properties of concrete studied.
Refractory concretes with the usual cement content (about 20%) present, besides their well-known advantages, several important disadvantages which make such concretes unfit for certain applications. The relatively high CaO content in concretes, the presence of even small amounts of SiO2 and Fe2O3 in cement reduce in the first place the concretes refractoriness; if their relatively high porosity is also taken into account, the concretes behavior is further damaged in regard to the structural and thermal-chemical stability. especially at their high operating temperatures. This work is an attempt to correct the shortcomings shown by reducing the cement dosage and using appropriate admixtures in the technological process of concrete making.