The central bank’s action on bank liquidity implies the action on the amount of currency issued by the central bank that banks can acquire in their mutual relationships, and on its price, which is the action on the interest rate.
In order to respond to banks’ treasury needs, the central bank acts on the money market through restrictions on refinancing options and handling reserve requirements.
The paper aims to investigate the extent to which the NBR’s money tool system influences the mass and quality of credit granted by banks in the Romanian banking system. The monetary policy strategy adopted by the NBR had a strong influence on the macroeconomic variables of Romania
In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the economy, worldwide, goes through a phase of economic unbalances. Thus the need arises, need that is caused by psychological and practical reasons, to be aware of these turbulent changes, to understand and to formulate measures to combat the current situation which is deemed to be the most severe economic and financial crisis from World War II up to present day.
The crisis has rapidly expanded worldwide, national economies encountering difficulties of various degrees, both within the banking system and the real economy. The impact of European countries has been and continues to be an alarmingly severe, the crisis affecting banks in a series of similar ways to the impact it had on American banks.
In writing this article, I started from the premise that highlighting the situation of credit institutions represents a true barometer of the actual state of an economy, and continuous observation, analysis and interpretation of bank performances represents a condition of progress and sustainable economic development.
The new regulations on capital adequacy aimed to strengthen the stability of financial and banking system because a stable banking system contributes to assure a sustainable development with long term beneficial effects on economy.
This article represents a review of the impact on new higher standards for Romanian banks regarding capital adequacy.
Rodica Dragomiroiu, Iulian Hurloiu, Bianca Rusu and Elena Burtea
Performance management in organizations is mainly concentrated on evaluating employees’ results and on rewards. The efficient work of a member of an organization is usually seen as a consequence of the interactions between individual skills and motivation. More and more managers of successful business organizations recognize the critical importance of planning and monitoring the employees’ work results.
Letiția Elena Leuștean, Cristina Dimitriu, Simona Fica, Maria-Christina Ungureanu, Cristina Preda, Voichița Mogoș, Didona Ungureanu and Carmen Vulpoi
Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk for the development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Due to the inverse correlation between serum uric acid and insulin sensitivity, the measurement of uric acid may provide a marker of insulin resistance. Objective: To establish the relationship between uric acid and markers of insulin resistance in obese and overweight women with PCOS. Methods: Serum uric acid levels were measured in 38 PCOS obese and overweight patients and 30 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric variables, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results: No statistically significant differences in uric acid levels between PCOS and non-PCOS women were found. Serum uric acid levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, insulin and HOMA. Following the use of stepwise linear regression analysis, BMI was the only parameter retained by the regression model, responsible for 42.1% of the variability of serum uric acid levels. Conclusions: In PCOS women obesity seems to be the main determinant of plasma uric acid levels. Insulin and HOMA are also involved to a lesser extent, but their role remains to be clarified by further studies.
Jan Dick, Amani Al-Assaf, Chris Andrews, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Elli Groner, Ľuboš Halada, Zita Izakovičová, Miklós Kertész, Fares Khoury, Dušanka Krasić, Kinga Krauze, Giorgio Matteucci, Viesturs Melecis, Michael Mirtl, Daniel E. Orenstein, Elena Preda, Margarida Santos-Reis, Rognvald I. Smith, Angheluta Vadineanu, Sanja Veselić and Petteri Vihervaara
The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.