The paper deals with the possibilities of using Data Matrix codes in production engineering. We designed and tested the computationally efficient method for locating the Data Matrix code in the images. The location search procedure consists of identification of candidate regions using image binarization, then joining adjacent points into continuous regions and also examining outer boundaries of the regions. Afterwards we verify the presence of the Finder Pattern (as two perpendicular line segments) and Timing Pattern (as alternating sequence of black and white modules) in these candidate regions. Such procedure is invariant to shift rotation and scale change of Data Matrix codes. The method we have proposed has been verified on a set of real industrial images and compared to other commercial algorithms. We are also convinced that such technique is also suitable for real-time processing and has achieved better results than comparable commercial algorithms.
Data Matrix codes can be a significant factor in increasing productivity and efficiency in production processes. An important point in deploying Data Matrix codes is their recognition and decoding. In this paper is presented a computationally efficient algorithm for locating Data Matrix codes in the images. Image areas that may contain the Data Matrix code are to be identified firstly. To identify these areas, the thresholding, connected components labelling and examining outer bounding-box of the continuous regions is used. Subsequently, to determine the boundaries of the Data Matrix code more precisely, we work with the difference of adjacent projections around the Finder Pattern. The dimensions of the Data Matrix code are determined by analyzing the local extremes around the Timing Pattern. We verified the proposed method on a testing set of synthetic and real scene images and compared it with the results of other open-source and commercial solutions. The proposed method has achieved better results than competitive commercial solutions.
One of the most frequently measured quantity is temperature, which is also one of the most important physical quantities. Temperature has influence on the almost all states and processes in the nature as well as in technique. A wide range of temperature sensors is currently available on the market. They use different measurement principles and exist in many designs. According to the location of the sensing element in the measured environment, they are divided into two main groups: contact and non-contact. Further, we can divide the temperature sensors according to the physical principle on which they work. The article deals with the analysis and comparison of selected Arduino-compatible contact temperature sensors. The temperature measurement of machine functional nodes and its diagnostics are part of maintenance and engineering diagnostics. At present, NC and CNC machine diagnostics are an important trend in machine condition monitoring and machine status prediction to maintain production quality. Machine status monitoring allows reducing of machine service costs as well as maintaining the high production quality.
The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours). Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of ionized air. Due to the experiment there was simulated smoking at the relative air humidity φ = 37 % and φ = 39 % and temperature of 20 °C in the room. Increased PM10 concentrations were caused only by cigarette smoke pollution or more precisely by artificially created higher humidity in the measuring room excluding ambient environment impacts. The aim of the experiments was to prove influence of ionization on the elimination of cigarette smoke. The measurements showed that the highest efficiency of PM10 particulate removal was achieved when the distance of smoking cigarettes from ionization source was 3 m and the air humidity was 39 %. The consequent increase of the distance of smoking cigarettes from the ionization source significantly decreased the efficiency of particle removal. The difference between ionized and natural air is minimal at the bigger distance.
The contribution deals with the comparison of possibilities of utilizing two experimental methods: digital and classical holographic interferometry for the visualization of beam motion. The girders are used in civil and mechanical engineering and considering the technical point of view it is necessary to learn to what extent the beam is deformed at the load and how much it can withstand.
Data matrix codes are two-dimensional (2D) matrix bar codes, which are the descendants of the well known 1D bar codes. However, compared to 1D bar codes, they allow to store much more information in the same area. Comparing data matrix codes with QR codes, for example, we find them much more effective in marking small objects or in the case that you have only a very small area for placing a code in. Their capacity and ability of decoding also a code that is partly damaged make them an appropriate solution for industrial applications. In the following paper we compare the impact of various cameras on the detection and decoding of data matrix codes in real scene images. The location of the code is based on the fact that typical bordering of a data matrix code forms a region of connected points which create “L”, the so-called finder pattern, and the parallel dotting, the so-called timing pattern. In the first step, we try to locate the finder pattern using adaptive thresholding and connecting neighbouring points to continuous regions. Then we search for the regions where 3 outer boundary points form a isosceles right triangle that could represent the finder pattern. In the second step, we have to verify the timing pattern. We look for an even number of crossings between the background and foreground. Experimental results show that the algorithm we have proposed provides better results than competitive solutions.
The present paper focuses on the analysis of the possibilities of using integral transforms for measuring and evaluating the differences of compared images (car silhouettes) with the purpose of a correct car body categorization. Approaches such as the light intensities frequency change, the application of discrete integral transforms without the use of further supplementary information enabling automated data processing using the Fourier-Mellin transforms are used within this work. The calculation of the several metrics was verified through different combinations that implied using and not using the Hamming window and a low-pass filter. The paper introduced a method for measuring and evaluating the differences in the compared images (car silhouettes). The proposed method relies on the fact that the integral transforms have their own transformants in the case of translation, scaling and rotation, in the frequency area. Besides, the Fourier-Mellin transform was to offer image transformation that is resistant to the translation, rotation and scale.
This paper discusses the problem of possibilities for applying a machine vision in the measurement of the trajectory of the upper limb movement in rehabilitation exercises. The fundamental presumption of designed system was to get the image from the camera’s CCD processor, possibilities of measuring and its processing. As a result of the application system, it is possible to dynamically determine the radius between the shoulder and forearm, and also the angle between the shoulder and the chest of the man, as function of the limb motion. The created system gives the possibility to use a non-invasive method of measurement, allows visualization and full analysis of the rehabilitation progress and also allows keeping electronic records of patients.
The contribution is focused on investigating the heat transfer via natural convection which originated as an effect of changed air density by heating the horizontal sample in the area given. For this research we used samples of a new material made in the Russian Federation – the foam concrete which was reinforced by PET fibres. The samples were heated by an electric heating device from the bottom. The temperature fields originating above the horizontal sample surface were visualised by means of the holographic interferometric contactless method in real time. The holographic interferograms of the temperature field were analysed, and then the local heat transfer parameters were calculated: the heat transfer coefficient α, and the heat conductivity coefficient λ.